Status Full-time Faculty

Home Department of Bioengineering

Phone 265-6596


Address 4265 Beckman Institute, 405 North Mathews Avenue

  • Biography

    Rohit serves as the Director of the Cancer Center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Illinois), one of the university-wide institutes at Illinois. His primary academic appointment is in the Department of Bioengineering with joint appointments in several engineering departments and chemistry as well as in the Carle Illinois College of Medicine. He is an undergraduate dual-degree recipient from the Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi in Chemical Engineering and Polymer Science and Engineering. After a doctoral degree in Polymer Science and Engineering from Case Western Reserve University and training at the National Institutes of Health, he has been at Illinois as an assistant (2005-2011), associate (2011-2012) and full (2012-) professor.

    Rohit has pioneered the field of chemical imaging. His contributions span from theory, modeling, building instruments to applications of chemical imaging in biomedical and polymeric materials. His innovative teaching has been consistently recognized by his students, leading to his election to the list of teachers ranked excellent 13 times. He currently serves as the PI of the tissue microenvironment training program supported by a T32 grant. At Illinois, Rohit has also served to connect the research community in new and exciting ways to take on basic science and engineering questions that surround cancer. He was the first assistant professor hired into Illinois’ bioengineering department and played a key role in its development. He proposed (2011) and has since served to develop the Cancer Center at Illinois—a basic science center combining high quality technology and engineering with the field of oncology.


    • B.Tech. (dual degree), Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi, 1996

    • Ph.D., Macromolecular Science and Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 2000

  • Honors
    • 2022:  Society for Applied Spectroscopy Gold Medal, SAS NY/NJ Section                                         

    • 2022: Pittsburgh Spectroscopy Award                   

    • 2022: Fellow, Optica       

    • 2021: Ellis R. Lippincott Award, The Optical Society, Coblentz Society, and Society for Applied Spectroscopy                  

    • 2020: Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science    

    • 2017: Beckman Vision and Spirit Award         

    • 2016: Agilent Thought Leader Award               

    • 2015: Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering   

    • 2015: Fellow, Society for Applied Spectroscopy                                           

    • 2013: Craver Award, Coblentz Society           

    • 2012: FACSS Innovation Award                 

    • 2011: Campus Award for Exceptional Promotion & Tenure Dossier             

    • 2011: Xerox Award for Faculty Research       

    • 2010: Fellow, Center for Advanced Study         

    • 2007: DoD Young Investigator                                                                                                              


  • Research

    Research areas:

    • Big Data

    • Bioinformatics

    • Biomolecular engineering

    • BioPhotonics

    • Biotechnology

    • Cell and molecular engineering

    • Chemical biosensors

    • Computational bioengineering

    • Early cancer detection

    • Micro and molecular technologies

    • Microfabrication

    • Nanoparticle bioimaging probes

    • Optical biosensors

    • Optical diagnostics for cancer

    • Quantum dot chemistry and physics

    • Signal processing

    • Tumor microenvironments

    Rohit Bhargava’s research focuses on the development of chemical imaging technologies and applying them to enable digital molecular pathology for cancer research and patient care. Traditionally, cancer has been diagnosed by its shape and size. Rohit’s group aims to diagnose cancer by its underlying molecular characteristics, using fundamental advances in chemical imaging and applications of modern machine learning, ultimately allowing for better treatment of patients. His research is supported by federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health, as well as by industry.

    His ongoing research is focused on the development of IR spectroscopic imaging technology. His research objectives encompass three scales of imaging---fast infrared absorption, optical-resolution IR imaging, and nanoscale IR imaging.  He plans to facilitate design of a next generation of instruments that are high performance in speed/signal to noise ratio, push the limits of spatial resolution, and reveal greater molecular detail. A more recent direction in his laboratory is in making biological models by 3D printing to explore the tumor microenvironment.

  • 2021

    • Mittal S, Wrobel T, Walsh M, Kajdacsy-Balla A, and Bhargava R. "Breast cancer histopathology using infrared spectroscopic imaging: The impact of instrumental configurations" Clinical Spectroscopy (2021). DOI: 10.1016/j.clispe.2021.100006
    • Tiwari S, Kajdacsy-Balla A, Whiteley J, Cheng G, Hewitt S, and Bhargava R. "INFORM: INFrared-based ORganizational Measurements of tumor and its microenvironment to predict patient survival" Science Advances (2021). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abb8292


    • Chen L, Kenkel S, Hsieh P, Gryka M, and Bhargava R. "Freeform Three-Dimensionally Printed Microchannels via Surface-Initiated Photopolymerization Combined with Sacrificial Molding" Applied Materials & Interfaces (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c12158
    • Kenkel S, Mittal S, and Bhargava R. "Closed-loop atomic force microscope-infrared spectroscopic imaging for nanoscale imaging for nanoscale molecular characterization" Nature Communications (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-17043-5
    • Mittal S, Balla A, and Bhargava R. "Deep Learning Models for Reliable Detection of the Intraductal Lesions of the Breast" Proceedings of Laboratory Investigation Volume 100, Issue Suppl1, Pages 1480-1481 [Conference Paper] Nature (2020).
    • Phal Y, Yeh K, and Bhargava R. "Concurrent Vibrational Circular Dichroism Measurements with Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging" Analytical Chemistry (2020). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00323
    • Phal Y, Yeh K, and Bhargava R. "Polarimetric infrared spectroscopic imaging using quantum cascade lasers" Advanced Chemical Microscopy for Life Science and Translational Medicine (2020). DOI: 10.1117/12.2544392
    • Schnell M, Mittal S, Falahkheirkhah F, Mittal A, Yeh K, Kenkel S, Kadjacsy-Balla A, Carney PS, and Bhargava R. "Infrared Optical Hybrid (IR-OH) Microscopy for Label-Free Histopathology" Frontiers in Optics (2020). DOI: 10.1364/FIO.2020.FW7E.5
    • Schnell M, Mittal S, Falahkheirkhah K, Mittal A, Yeh K, Kenkel S, and Bhargava R. "All-digital histopathology by infrared-optical hybrid microscopy" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 18 3388-3396 (2020). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1912400117
    • Tiwari S, Triulzi T, Holton S, Regondi V, Paolini B, Tagliabue E, and Bhargava R. "Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Visualizes a Prognostic Extracellular Matrix-Related Signature in Breast Cancer" Scientific Reports (2020). DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-62403-2


    • Gryka MC, Comi TJ, Forsyth RA, Hadley PM, Deb S, and Bhargava R. "Controlled dissolution of freeform 3D printed carbohydrate glass scaffolds in hydrogels using a hydrophobic spray coating" Add. Man, 26, 193-201 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.12.014
    • Mittal S and Bhargava R. "A comparison of mid-infrared spectral regions on accuracy of tissue classification" Analyst 144, 2635-2642 (2019). DOI: 10.1039/C8AN01782D
    • Mittal S, Stoean C, Kajdacsy-Balla A, and Bhargava R. "Digital Assessment of Stained Breast Tissue Images for Comprehensive Tumor and Microenvironment Analysis" Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 7 246 (2019). DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00246
    • Mukherjee P, Ghosh A, Lamborn MJ, Monwar MM, Fodor JS, DesLauriers PJ, and Bhargava R. "Relating strain hardening moduli in high density polyethylene copolymers to anisotropic molecular deformation using infrared spectroscopic imaging" Polymer 172, 398-403 (2019). DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2019.04.012
    • Rasskazov IL, Singh S, Carney PS, and Bhargava R. "Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction for Infrared Microspectroscopy of Heterogeneous Samples with Cylindrical Domains" App. Spec (2019). DOI: 10.1177/0003702819844528
    • Richard C, McGee R, Goenka A, Mukherjee P, and Bhargava R. "On-demand Milifluidic Synthesis of Quantum Dots in Digital Droplet Reactors" Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 7 3730-3735 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acs.iecr.9b04230
    • Singh R, Wrobel TP, Mukherjee P, Gryka M, Kole M, Harrison S, and Bhargava R. "Bulk Protein and Oil Prediction in Soybeans Using Transmission Raman Spectroscopy: A Comparison of Approaches to Optimize Accuracy" App. Spec (2019). DOI: 10.1177/0003702818815642
    • Yeh K, Lee D,and Bhargava R. "Multicolor Discrete Frequency Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging" Anal. Chem 91 (3), 2177-2185 (2019). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04749


    • A. Ganguli, A. Ornob, N. Spegazzini, Y. Liu, G. Damhorst, T. Ghonge, B. Thornton, C. J. Konopka, W. Dobrucki, S. E. Clare, R. Bhargava, A. M. Smith, F. Kosari, R. Bashir “Pixelated spatial gene expression analysis from tissue” Nat. Comm. 9, Art. number: 202 (2018)
    • Gelber MK, Hurst G, and Bhargava R. "Freeform Assembly Planning" IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 1-15 (2018). DOI: 10.1109/TASE.2018.2878670
    • Gelber MK, Hurst G, and Bhargava R. “Freeform Direct-Write Assembly Planning” IEEE Tran. Auto. Sci. Eng. (2018) DOI: arXiv:1801.00527
    • Gelber MK, Hurst G, Comi TJ, and Bhargava R. "Model-guided design and characterization of a high-precision 3D printing process for carbohydrate glass" Add. Man. 22, 38-50 (2018). DOI: 10.1016/j.addma.2018.04.026
    • Kenkel S, Mittal A, Mittal S, and Bhargava R. "Probe-sample interaction-independent Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared (AFM-IR) spectroscopy: Towards robust nanoscale compositional mapping" Anal. Chem, 90, (15), 8845-8855 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b00823
    • Mittal S, Yeh K, Leslie LS, Kenkel S, Kajdacsy-Balla A, and Bhargava R. "Simultaneous cancer and tumor microenvironment subtyping using confocal infrared microscopy for all-digital molecular histopathology" PNAS 115(25), E5651-E5660 (2018). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1719551115
    • Mukherjee P, Ghosh A, Spegazzini N, Lamborn MJ, Monwar MM, DesLauriers PJ, and Bhargava R. "Relating Post-yield Mechanical Behavior in Polyethylenes to Spatially Varying Molecular Deformation Using Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: Homopolymers" Macromolecules 51(10), 3836-3844 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.macromol.8b00363
    • T.P. Wrobel, R. Bhargava “Infrared spectroscopic imaging advances as an analytical technology for biomedical sciences” Anal. Chem. In press (2018)
    • Wrobel TP, and Bhargava R. "Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Advances as an Analytical Technology for Biomedical Sciences" Anal. Chem 90, 1444-1463 (2018). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05330


    • A. Ghosh, P. Mukherjee, S. Deb, R. Bhargava “Mapping Solvation Environments in Porous Metal Organic Frameworks with Infrared Chemical Imaging” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 5325–5330 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b02104
    • A.M. Andrews, R. Bhargava, R. Kennedy, L. Li, J.V. Sweedler “The Chemistry of Thought: The Role of the Measurement Sciences in Brain Research” Anal. Chem. 89, 4757-4757 (2017)
    • Ghosh A, Mukherjee P, Deb S, and Bhargava R. "Mapping Solvation Environments in Porous Metal–Organic Frameworks with Infrared Chemical Imaging" J. Phys. Chem. Lett 8, 5325-5330 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b02104
    • I.L. Rasskazov, N. Spegazzini, P. S. Carney, R. Bhargava “Dielectric Sphere Clusters as a Model to Understand Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Data Recorded from Complex Samples” Anal. Chem. 89, 10813–10818 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02168
    • M.K. Gelber, M.R. Kole, N. Kim, N. Aluru, R. Bhargava “Quantitative Chemical Imaging Within Non-Planar Microfluidics” Anal. Chem. 89, 1716–1723 (2017) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03943
    • Rasskazov IL, Spegazzini N, Carney PS, and Bhargava R. "Dielectric Sphere Clusters as a Model to Understand Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Data Recorded from Complex Samples" Anal. Chem. 89, 10813-10818 (2017). DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b02168
    • Wrobel TP, Mukherjee P, and Bhargava R. "Rapid visualization of macromolecular orientation by discrete frequency mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging" Analyst 142, 75-79 (2017). DOI: 10.1039/C6AN01086E


    • F. Ostadhossein, S.K. Misra, P. Mukherjee, A. Ostadhossein, E. Daza, S. Tiwari, S. Mittal, M.C. Gryka, R. Bhargava, D. Pan “Breast Cancer Therapy: Defined host-guest chemistry on Nanocarbon for sustained inhibition of cancer” Small 12, 5782-5782 (2016) DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601161
    • Bhargava, A.; Chan, V.; Kimball, E. S.; Oyer, D. S., Effects of Age on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Insulin Detemir: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the Predictive (Tm) 303 Study. Drugs & Aging 2016, 33, (2), 135-141, DOI:10.1007/s40266-016-0342-9.
    • DeVetter, B.M.; Kenkel, S.; Mittal, S.; Bhargava, R.;Wrobel, T., “Characterization of structure of lowe substrates and consequences for IR transflection measurements” Vib. Spectrosc. Accepted 2016
    • Dubowsky, S. E.; Deutsch, B.; Bhargava, R.; McCall, B. J., Infrared Emission Spectroscopy of Atmospheric-Pressure Ball Plasmoids. Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 2016, 322, 1-8, DOI:10.1016/j.jms.2016.02.005.
    • F.N. Keith, R.K. Reddy, R. Bhargava “Development of a practical spatial-spectral analysis protocol for breast histopathology using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging” Faraday Discuss. 187, 43-68 (2016) DOI: 10.1039/c5fd00199d
    • Kunze, C.; Mentzel, H. J.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Fleck, R.; Stenzel, M.; Bhargava, R.; Burrowes, D.; Sutter, G.; Schultze-Mosgau, M.; Santiuste, M.; Hahn, G., Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Macrocyclic Gadobutrol in Children Aged Younger Than 2 Years Including Term Newborns in Comparison to Older Populations. Investigative Radiology 2016, 51, (1), 50-57, DOI:10.1097/Rli.0000000000000204.
    • Kwak, J. T.; Hewitt, S. M.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A. A.; Sinha, S.; Bhargava, R., Automated Prostate Tissue Referencing for Cancer Detection and Diagnosis. BMC Bioinformatics 2016, 17, DOI:ARTN 227 10.1186/s12859-016-1086-6.
    • Misra, S. K.; Mukherjee, P.; Ohoka, A.; Schwartz-Duval, A. S.; Tiwari, S.; Bhargava, R.; Pan, D., Vibrational Spectroscopy and Imaging for Concurrent Cellular Trafficking of Co-Localized Doxorubicin and Deuterated Phospholipid Vesicles. Nanoscale 2016, 8, (5), 2826-2831, DOI:10.1039/c5nr07975f.
    • P. Mukherjee, S.J. Lim, T.P. Wrobel, R. Bhargava,* A.M. Smith* “Measuring and predicting the internal structure of semiconductor nanocrystals through Raman spectroscopy” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 138, 10887-10896 (2016) [*joint corresponding authors] DOI: 10.1021/jacs.6b03907
    • R. Bhargava, A. Madabhushi “Emerging themes in image informatics and molecular analysis for digital pathology” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Engr. 18, 387–412 (2016) - invited
    • S. Tiwari, C. Hoke, V. Reddy, J. Raman, R. Bhargava “Translating infrared spectroscopic imaging for rapid analysis of biopsy samples using a discrete frequency approach” Anal. Chem. 88, 10183-10190 (2016) DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.6b02754
    • S.K. Misra, P. Mukherjee, H-H. Chang, S. Tiwari, M. Gryka, R. Bhargava, D. Pan “Multi-functionality Redefined with Colloidal Carotene Carbon Nanoparticles for Synchronized Chemical Imaging, Enriched Cellular Uptake and Therapy” Sci. Rep. 6, Article 29299 (2016)
    • Saha, M.; Arun, I.; Basak, B.; Agarwal, S.; Ahmed, R.; Chatterjee, S.; Bhargava, R.; Chakraborty, C., Quantitative Microscopic Evaluation of Mucin Areas and Its Percentage in Mucinous Carcinoma of the Breast Using Tissue Histological Images. Tissue & Cell 2016, 48, (3), 265-273, DOI:10.1016/j.tice.2016.02.005.


    • Chng, B. X. K.; van Dijk, T.; Bhargava, R.; Carney, P. S., Enhancement and Extinction Effects in Surface-Enhanced Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2015, 17, (33), 21348-21355, DOI:10.1039/c4cp05089d.
    • Deutsch, B.; Reddy, R.; Mayerich, D.; Bhargava, R.; Carney, P. S., Compositional Prior Information in Computed Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision 2015, 32, (6), 1126-1131, DOI:10.1364/Josaa.32.001126.
    • DeVetter, B. M.; Mukherjee, P.; Murphy, C. J.; Bhargava, R., Measuring Binding Kinetics of Aromatic Thiolated Molecules with Nanoparticles Via Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Nanoscale 2015, 7, (19), 8766-8775, DOI:10.1039/C5nr01006c.
    • Gelber, M. K.; Bhargava, R., Monolithic Multilayer Microfluidics via Sacrificial Molding of 3d-Printed Isomalt. Lab on a Chip 2015, 15, (7), 1736-1741, DOI:10.1039/C4lc01392a.
    • Han, J.; Qiu, W.; Tiwari, S.; Bhargava, R.; Gao, W.; Xing, B. S., Consumer-Grade Polyurethane Foam Functions as a Large and Selective Absorption Sink for Bisphenol a in Aqueous Media. Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2015, 3, (16), 8870-8881, DOI:10.1039/C5ta00868a.
    • J. T. Kwak, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, V. Macias, M. J. Walsh, S. Sinha, R. Bhargava “Improving prediction of prostate cancer recurrence using chemical imaging” Sci. Rep. 5, 8758 (2015).
    • Kwak, J. T.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Macias, V.; Walsh, M.; Sinha, S.; Bhargava, R., Improving Prediction of Prostate Cancer Recurrence Using Chemical Imaging. Scientific Reports 2015, 5, DOI:Artn 8758 DOI:10.1038/Srep08758.
    • L. S. Leslie, T. P. Wrobel, D. Mayerich, S. Bindra, R. Emmadi, R. Bhargava “High definition infrared spectroscopic imaging for lymph node histopathology” PLoS One 10:e0127238 (2015). DOI: doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127238
    • Leslie, L. S.; Kadjacsy-Balla, A.; Bhargava, R., High-Definition Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Breast Tissue. Medical Imaging 2015: Digital Pathology 2015, 9420, DOI:Artn 94200i DOI:10.1117/12.2082461.
    • Leslie, L. S.; Wrobel, T. P.; Mayerich, D.; Bindra, S.; Emmadi, R.; Bhargava, R., High Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Lymph Node Histopathology. Plos One 2015, 10, (6), DOI:UNSP e0127238 10.1371/journal.pone.0127238.
    • Liu, J. N.; Bhargava, R.; Cunningham, B. T., Discrete-Frequency Infrared Microspectroscopy using Monolithically Integrated Photonic Filters. 2015 Photonics Conference (IPC) 2015.
    • M. K. Gelber, R. Bhargava “Monolithic multilayer microfluidics via sacrificial molding of 3D-printed isomalt” Lab Chip 15, 1736–1741 (2015). DOI: 10.1039/c4lc01392a.
    • Mukherjee, P.; Misra, S. K.; Gryka, M. C.; Chang, H. H.; Tiwari, S.; Wilson, W. L.; Scott, J. W.; Bhargava, R.; Pan, D., Tunable Luminescent Carbon Nanospheres with Well-Defined Nanoscale Chemistry for Synchronized Imaging and Therapy. Small 2015, 11, (36), 4691-4703, DOI:10.1002/smll.201500728.
    • Ray, P. S.; Jensen, T. W.; Ray, T.; Gholamalamdari, O.; Tsai, C. Y.; Kim, B.; Bhargava, R.; Prasanth, K. V., Foxc1/Foxa1 Transcriptional Balance in Breast Cancer: From Acquisition of Mesenchymal and Stem Cell Traits to Occult Lymph Node Independent Breast Cancer Metastasis. Cancer Research 2015, 75, DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.Sabcs14-P1-07-30.
    • Tiwari, S.; Reddy, V. B.; Bhargava, R.; Raman, J., Computational Chemical Imaging for Cardiovascular Pathology: Chemical Microscopic Imaging Accurately Determines Cardiac Transplant Rejection. Plos One 2015, 10, (5), DOI:ARTN e0125183 10.1371/journal.pone.0125183.
    • Tiwari, S.; Reddy, V. B.; Bhargava, R.; Raman, J., Computational Chemical Imaging for Cardiovascular Pathology: Chemical Microscopic Imaging Accurately Determines Cardiac Transplant Rejection. Plos One 2015, 10, (5), DOI:ARTN e0125183 DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0125183.
    • Tiwari, S.; Zong, X. Y.; Holton, S. E.; Prasanth, K. V.; Bhargava, R., Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy and Imaging of the Nucleus to Characterize DNA Contributions in Different Phases of the Cell Cycle. Medical Imaging 2015: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging 2015, 9417, DOI:Unsp 941720 DOI:10.1117/12.2082347.
    • Wu, Q.; Madany, P.; Akech, J.; Dobson, J. R.; Douthwright, S.; Browne, G.; Colby, J. L.; Winter, G. E.; Bradner, J. E.; Pratap, J.; Sluder, G.; Bhargava, R.; Chiosea, S. I.; van Wijnen, A. J.; Stein, J. L.; Stein, G. S.; Lian, J. B.; Nickerson, J. A.; Imbalzano, A. N., The Swi/Snf Atpases Are Required for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation. Journal of Cellular Physiology 2015, 230, (11), 2683-2694, DOI:10.1002/jcp.24991.
    • Yeh, K.; Kenkel, S.; Liu, J. N.; Bhargava, R., Fast Infrared Chemical Imaging with a Quantum Cascade Laser. Analytical Chemistry 2015, 87, (1), 485-493, DOI:10.1021/Ac5027513.


    • Baker, M. J.; Trevisan, J.; Bassan, P.; Bhargava, R.; Butler, H. J.; Dorling, K. M.; Fielden, P. R.; Fogarty, S. W.; Fullwood, N. J.; Heys, K. A.; Hughes, C.; Lasch, P.; Martin-Hirsch, P. L.; Obinaju, B.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Sule-Suso, J.; Strong, R. J.; Walsh, M. J.; Wood, B. R.; Gardner, P.; Martin, F. L., Using Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy to Analyze Biological Materials. Nature Protocols 2014, 9, (8), 1771-1791, DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2014.110.
    • DeVetter, B. M.; Bhargava, R.; Murphy, C. J., Computational Study of the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Silica-Coated Silver Nanowires. Photochemistry and Photobiology 2014, 90, (2), 415-418, DOI: 10.1111/php.12205.
    • DeVetter, B. M.; Sivapalan, S. T.; Patel, D. D.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Murphy, C. J.; Bhargava, R., Observation of Molecular Diffusion in Polyelectrolyte-Wrapped Sers Nanoprobes. Langmuir 2014, 30, (29), 8931-8937, DOI:10.1021/La501944k.
    • Holton, S. E.; Bergamaschi, A.; Katzenellenbogen, B. S.; Bhargava, R., Integration of Molecular Profiling and Chemical Imaging to Elucidate Fibroblast-Microenvironment Impact on Cancer Cell Phenotype and Endocrine Resistance in Breast Cancer. Plos One 2014, 9, (5), e96878.
    • Liu, J. N.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Bhargava, R.; Cunningham, B. T., Sculpting Narrowband Fano Resonances Inherent in the Large-Area Mid-Infrared Photonic Crystal Microresonators for Spectroscopic Imaging. Optics Express 2014, 22, (15), 18142-18158, DOI:10.1364/Oe.22.018142.
    • Mayerich, D. M.; Walsh, M.; Kadjacsy-Balla, A.; Mittal, S.; Bhargava, R., Breast Histopathology Using Random Decision Forests-Based Classification of Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Data. Medical Imaging 2014: Digital Pathology 2014, 9041, DOI:Artn 904107 DOI:10.1117/12.2043783.
    • Mayerich, D.; Van Dijk, T.; Walsh, M. J.; Schulrnerich, M. V.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., On the Importance of Image Formation Optics in the Design of Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging Systems. Analyst 2014, 139, (16), 4031-4036, DOI:10.1039/C3an01687k.
    • Mayerich, D.; van Dijk, T.; Walsh, M.; Schulmerich, M.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., Quantitative Confocal Phase Imaging by Synthetic Optical Holography. Analyst 2014, 10, 1039.
    • Rosenberg, A.; Surya, J.; Liu, R. Y.; Streyer, W.; Law, S.; Leslie, L. S.; Bhargava, R.; Wasserman, D., Flat Mid-Infrared Composite Plasmonic Materials Using Lateral Doping-Patterned Semiconductors. Journal of Optics 2014, 16, (9), DOI:Artn 094012 DOI:10.1088/2040-8978/16/9/094012.
    • Wu, Q.; Madany, P.; Akech, J.; Dobson, J.; Douthwright, S.; Browne, G.; Colby, J. L.; Schnabl, J. M.; Pratap, J.; Sluder, G.; Bhargava, R.; Chiosea, S. I.; Van Wijnen, A. J.; Stein, J. L.; Stein, G. S.; Lian, J. B.; Nickerson, J. A.; Imbalzano, A. N., Brg1 Promotes Breast Cancer by Reprogramming Lipid Biosynthesis. Molecular Biology of the Cell 2014, 25.


    • Abouimrane, A.; Odom, S. A.; Tavassol, H.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Wu, H. M.; Bhargava, R.; Gewirth, A. A.; Moore, J. S.; Amine, K., 3-Hexylthiophene as a Stabilizing Additive for High Voltage Cathodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2013, 160, (2), A268-A271, DOI: 10.1149/2.039302jes.
    • Kodali, A. K.; Schulmerich, M.; Palekar, R.; Bhargava, R., Sculpting the Analytical Volume in and around Nanoparticle Sensors Using a Multilayer Geometry. Analytical Chemistry 2013, 85, (8), 3842-3848.
    • Kwon, B.; Jiang, J.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Xu, Z. D.; Bhargava, R.; Liu, G. L.; King, W. P., Bimaterial Microcantilevers with Black Silicon Nanocone Arrays. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical 2013, 199, 143-148, DOI: 10.1016/j.sna.2013.05.007.
    • Kwon, B.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Bhargava, R.; King, W. P., Infrared Emission from Heated Microcantilevers. Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering 2013, 17, (2), 141-153, DOI: 10.1080/15567265.2012.760693.
    • Kwon, B.; Seong, M.; Liu, J. N.; Rosenberger, M. R.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Bhargava, R.; Cunningham, B. T.; King, W. P., Large Infrared Absorptance of Bimaterial Microcantilevers Based on Silicon High Contrast Grating. Journal of Applied Physics 2013, 114, (15), DOI: 10.1063/1.4825313.
    • Liu, Y. Y.; Zhang, C. Y.; Hu, D. H.; Kuhlenschmidt, M. S.; Kuhlenschmidt, T. B.; Mylon, S. E.; Kong, R.; Bhargava, R.; Nguyen, T. H., Role of Collector Alternating Charged Patches on Transport of Cryptosporidium Parvum Oocysts in a Patchwise Charged Heterogeneous Micromodel. Environmental Science & Technology 2013, 47, (6), 2670-2678.
    • Mayerich, D.; Walsh, M.; Schulmerich, M.; Bhargava, R., Real-Time Interactive Data Mining for Chemical Imaging Information: Application to Automated Histopathology. BMC Bioinformatics 2013, 14, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-14-156.
    • Moreno-Torres, J. G.; Llora, X.; Goldberg, D. E.; Bhargava, R., Repairing Fractures between Data Using Genetic Programming-Based Feature Extraction: A Case Study in Cancer Diagnosis. Information Sciences 2013, 222, 805-823.
    • Reddy, R. K.; Walsh, M. J.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. Applied Spectroscopy 2013, 67, (1), 86-92.
    • Shah, A. B.; Sivapalan, S. T.; DeVetter, B. M.; Yang, T. K.; Wen, J. G.; Bhargava, R.; Murphy, C. J.; Zuo, J. M., High-Index Facets in Gold Nanocrystals Elucidated by Coherent Electron Diffraction. Nano Letters 2013, 13, (4), 1840-1846.
    • Sivapalan, S. T.; DeVetter, B. M.; Yang, T. K.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Bhargava, R.; Murphy, C. J., Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy of Polyelectrolyte-Wrapped Gold Nanoparticles in Colloidal Suspension. Journal of Physical Chemistry C 2013, 117, (20), 10677-10682, DOI: 10.1021/jp402392y.
    • Sivapalan, S. T.; DeVetter, B. M.; Yang, T. K.; van Dijk, T.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R.; Murphy, C. J., Off-Resonance Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy from Gold Nanorod Suspensions as a Function of Aspect Ratio: Not What We Thought. ACS Nano 2013, 7, (3), 2099-2105.
    • van Dijk, T.; Mayerich, D.; Bhargava, R.; Carney, P. S., Rapid Spectral-Domain Localization. Optics Express 2013, 21, (10), 12822-12830, DOI: 10.1364/oe.21.012822.
    • van Dijk, T.; Mayerich, D.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., Recovery of Absorption Spectra from Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Microspectroscopic Measurements of Intact Spheres. Applied Spectroscopy 2013, 67, (5), 546-552, DOI: 10.1366/12-06847.
    • van Dijk, T.; Sivapalan, S. T.; DeVetter, B. M.; Yang, T. K.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Murphy, C. J.; Bhargava, R.; Carney, P. S., Competition between Extinction and Enhancement in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2013, 4, (7), 1193-1196.
    • Yeh, K.; Schulmerich, M.; Bhargava, R., Mid-Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging with a Quantum Cascade Laser. Next-Generation Spectroscopic Technologies VI 2013, 8726, DOI: 10.1117/12.2015984.


    • Ambekar, R.; Lau, T. Y.; Walsh, M.; Bhargava, R.; Toussaint, K. C., Quantifying Collagen Structure in Breast Biopsies Using Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging. Biomedical Optics Express 2012, 3, (9), 2021-2035.
    • Bhargava, R., Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation. Applied Spectroscopy 2012, 66, (10), 1091-1120.
    • Bhargava, R., Resolution in Mid-Infrared Imaging: The Theory. Spectroscopy 2012, 27, (2), 74-74.
    • Kole, M. R.; Reddy, R. K.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Gelber, M. K.; Bhargava, R., Discrete Frequency Infrared Microspectroscopy and Imaging with a Tunable Quantum Cascade Laser. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, (23), 10366-10372.
    • Kwak, J. T.; Reddy, R.; Sinha, S.; Bhargava, R., Analysis of Variance in Spectroscopic Imaging Data from Human Tissues. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, (2), 1063-1069.
    • Kwon, B.; Rosenberger, M.; Bhargava, R.; Cahill, D. G.; King, W. P., Dynamic Thermomechanical Response of Bimaterial Microcantilevers to Periodic Heating by Infrared Radiation. Review of Scientific Instruments 2012, 83, DOI: 10.1063/1.3680107.
    • Kwon, B.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Elgass, L. J.; Kong, R.; Holton, S. E.; Bhargava, R.; King, W. P., Infrared Microspectroscopy Combined with Conventional Atomic Force Microscopy. Ultramicroscopy 2012, 116, 56-61.
    • Lu, N. X.; Mylon, S. E.; Kong, R.; Bhargava, R.; Zilles, J. L.; Nguyen, T. H., Interactions between Dissolved Natural Organic Matter and Adsorbed DNA and Their Effect on Natural Transformation of Azotobacter Vinelandii. Science of the Total Environment 2012, 426, 430-435.
    • Mahr, D. M.; Bhargava, R.; Insana, M. F., Three-Dimensional in Silico Breast Phantoms for Multimodal Image Simulations. IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 2012, 31, (3), 689-697.
    • Odom, S. A.; Tyler, T. P.; Caruso, M. M.; Ritchey, J. A.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Robinson, S. J.; Bhargava, R.; Sottos, N. R.; White, S. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Moore, J. S., Autonomic Restoration of Electrical Conductivity Using Polymer-Stabilized Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Microcapsules. Applied Physics Letters 2012, 101, (4).
    • Schulmerich, M. V.; Walsh, M. J.; Gelber, M. K.; Kong, R.; Kole, M. R.; Harrison, S. K.; McKinney, J.; Thompson, D.; Kull, L. S.; Bhargava, R., Protein and Oil Composition Predictions of Single Soybeans by Transmission Raman Spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2012, 60, (33), 8097-8102.
    • Walsh, M. J.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Bhargava, R., Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Tissue Histopathology. Laboratory Investigation 2012, 92, 518A-518A.
    • Walsh, M. J.; Reddy, R. K.; Bhargava, R., Label-Free Biomedical Imaging with Mid-IR Spectroscopy. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 2012, 18, (4), 1502-1513.


    • Chanda, D.; Shigeta, K.; Truong, T.; Lui, E.; Mihi, A.; Schulmerich, M.; Braun, P. V.; Bhargava, R.; Rogers, J. A., Coupling of Plasmonic and Optical Cavity Modes in Quasi-Three-Dimensional Plasmonic Crystals. Nature Communications 2011, 2, DOI: 10.1038/ncomms1487.
    • Davis, B. J.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., Theory of Infrared Microspectroscopy for Intact Fibers. Analytical Chemistry 2011, 83, (2), 525-532.
    • Holton, S. E.; Walsh, M. J.; Bhargava, R., Subcellular Localization of Early Biochemical Transformations in Cancer-Activated Fibroblasts Using Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. Analyst 2011, 136, (14), 2953-2958.
    • Kodali, A. K.; Bhargava, R., Effect of Non-Specificity in Shape, Size, and Dielectric Properties on Electromagnetic Extinction and Optical Field Enhancement from Spherical Nanolayered Metal-Dielectric Particles. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 2011, 130, (4-6), 991-1000.
    • Kong, R.; Bhargava, R., Characterization of porcine skin as a model for human skin studies using infrared spectroscopic imaging. Analyst 2011, 136, (11), 2359-2366.
    • Kwak, J. T.; Hewitt, S. M.; Sinha, S.; Bhargava, R., Multimodal microscopy for automated histologic analysis of prostate cancer. BMC Cancer 2011, 11.
    • Kwon, B.; Wang, C.; Park, K.; Bhargava, R.; King, W. P., Thermomechanical Sensitivity of Microcantilevers in the Mid-Infrared Spectral Region. Nanoscale and Microscale Thermophysical Engineering 2011, 15, (1), 16-27.
    • Liu, J. N.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Bhargava, R.; Cunningham, B. T., Optimally Designed Narrowband Guided-Mode Resonance Reflectance Filters for Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy. Optics Express 2011, 19, (24), 24182-24197.
    • Nasse, M. J.; Walsh, M. J.; Mattson, E. C.; Reininger, R.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Macias, V.; Bhargava, R.; Hirschmugl, C. J., High-resolution Fourier-transform infrared chemical imaging with multiple synchrotron beams. Nature Methods 2011, 8, (5), 413-416.
    • Walsh, M. J.; Mayerich, D. M.; Wiley, E. L.; Kajdacsy-Balla, A.; Bhargava, R., Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Breast Tissue Histopathology: Towards 'Stainless Staining'. Modern Pathology 2011, 24, 1941.
    • Yao, J. M.; Le, A. P.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Maria, J.; Lee, T. W.; Gray, S. K.; Bhargava, R.; Rogers, J. A.; Nuzzo, R. G., Soft Embossing of Nanoscale Optical and Plasmonic Structures in Glass. Acs Nano 2011, 5, (7), 5763-5774.
    • Yao, J. M.; Le, A. P.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Maria, J.; Lee, T. W.; Gray, S. K.; Bhargava, R.; Rogers, J. A.; Nuzzo, R. G., Soft Embossing of Nanoscale Optical and Plasmonic Structures in Glass. ACS Nano 2011, 5, (7), 5763-5774.


    • Davis, B. J.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., Theory of Midinfrared Absorption Microspectroscopy: I. Homogeneous Samples. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (9), 3474-3486.
    • Davis, B. J.; Carney, P. S.; Bhargava, R., Theory of Mid-infrared Absorption Microspectroscopy: II. Heterogeneous Samples. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (9), 3487-3499.
    • Kong, R.; Reddy, R. K.; Bhargava, R., Characterization of Tumor Progression in Engineered Tissue using Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging. Analyst 2010, 135, 1569 - 1578.
    • Kodali, A. K.; Schulmerich, M. V.; Palekar, R.; Llora, X.; Bhargava, R., Optimized nanospherical layered alternating metal-dielectric probes for optical sensing. Optics Express 2010, 18, (22), 23302-23313.
    • Kodali, A. K.; Schulmerich, M.; Ip, J.; Yen, G.; Cunningham, B. T.; Bhargava, R., Narrowband Midinfrared Reflectance Filters Using Guided Mode Resonance. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (13), 5697-5706.
    • Kodali, A. K.; Llora, X.; Bhargava, R., Optimally designed nanolayered metal-dielectric particles as probes for massively multiplexed and ultrasensitive molecular assays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010, 107, (31), 13620-13625.
    • Reddy, R. K.; Bhargava, R., Accurate histopathology from low signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic imaging data. Analyst 2010, 135, (11), 2818-2825.
    • Schulmerich, M. V.; Reddy, R.; Kodali, A. K.; Elgass, L. J.; Tangella, K.; Bhargava, R., Dark Field Raman Microscopy. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (14), 6273-6280.


    • Bhargava, R.; Perlman, R. S.; Fernandez, D. C.; Levin , I. W.; Bartick, E. G., Non-invasive detection of superimposed latent fingerprints and inter-ridge trace evidence by infrared spectroscopic imaging. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2009, 394, (8), 2069-2075.
    • Bhargava, R., Special Issue: Prominent Young Vibrational Spectroscopists 2009 Preface. Vibrational Spectroscopy 2009, 50, (1), 1-1.
    • Llora, X.; Priya, A.; Bhargava , R., Observer-Invariant Histopathology using Genetics-Based Machine Learning. Natural Computing 2009, 8, 101-120.


    • Park, K.; Lee, J.; Bhargava, R.; King, W. P., Routine femtogram-level chemical analyses using vibrational spectroscopy and self-cleaning scanning probe microscopy tips. Analytical Chemistry 2008, 80, (9), 3221-3228.


    • Bhargava, R., Towards a practical fourier transform infrared chemical imaging protocol for cancer histopathology. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2007, 389, (4), 1155-1169.
    • Bhargava, R.; Hewitt, S. M.; Levin, I. W. Re:Unrealistic expectations for IR microspectroscopic imaging. Nature Biotechnology 2007, 25, 31-33.
    • Srinivasan, G.; Bhargava, R., Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic imaging: The emerging evolution from a microscopy tool to a cancer imaging modality. Spectroscopy 2007, 22, (7), 30-31.


    • Bhargava, R.; Fernandez, D. C.; Hewitt, S. M.; Levin, I. W. High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Biomembranes 2006, 1758, (7), 830-845.


    • Fernandez, D. C.; Bhargava, R.; Hewitt, S. M.; Levin, I. W. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Observer-invariant Histopathology. Nature Biotechnology 2005, 23, 469-474.
    • Levin, I. W., Bhargava, R. Fourier Transform Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging: Integration of Microscopy and Molecular Recognition. Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 2005, 56, 429-474.


    • Bhargava, R., Levin, I. W. (2004), "Probing the Structure and Dynamics of Macromolecular Composites by Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging," Vibrational Spectroscopy, 34, 13-24.


    • Bhargava, R., Levin, I. W. (2003), "Non-invasive Imaging of Molecular Dynamics in Heterogeneous Materials" Macromolecules, 36, 92-96.
    • Bhargava, R., Wang, S. Q., Koenig, J. L. (2003), "FTIR Microspectroscopy of Polymeric Systems," Advances in Polymer Science, 163, 137-191.


    • Bhargava, R., Levin, I. W. (2001), "FTIR imaging: Theory and Practice," Analytical Chemistry, 73, 5157-5167.