Yi Lu's directory photo.

Yi Lu


Primary Affiliation

Photoacoustic Imaging


Status Affiliate Faculty

Home Department of Chemistry

Phone 333-2619



  • Biography

    Professor Yi Lu received his Ph.D. degree from the University of California at Los Angeles in 1992. After two years of postdoctoral research at the California Institute of Technology, he joined the faculty of the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign in 1994. He is now a HHMI Professor in the U of I Department of Chemistry and a part-time faculty member in the Beckman Institute 3D Micro- and Nanosystems group. Professor Lu is also affiliated with the Departments of Biochemistry, Materials Science and Engineering, the Center for Biophysics and Computational Biology, the Biotechnology Center, and the Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology. His fields of professional interest are design and selection of protein and nucleic acid enzymes with potential applications in biocatalysis, sensing and directed assembly of functional biomaterials.

  • Honors

    Applied Inorganic Chemistry Award, Royal Society of Chemistry (2015); Fellow, Royal Society of Chemistry (2015); Hutchison Memorial Lecturer, University of Rochester (2013-2014); Sigma Xi Distinguished Lecturer (2013-2014); Associate, Center for Advanced Study (2013); Innovation Discovery Award, Champaign County (2012); Gomberg Lecturer, University of Michigan (2012); Research Fellow Award, Illinois Sustainable Technology Center (2009); Special Creativity Extension Award, National Science Foundation (2009); Distinguished Visiting Professorship, National University of Singapore (2008); Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor (2002-2008); Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2007); Early Career Award, Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry (2007); Chang Jiang Professorship, Nanjing University (2007);Research, Development, and Operational Support Team Award, US Army CERL (2007); J. Clarence Karcher Medal and Lecturer, University of Oklahoma (2007); IUPAC Young Observer Award, National Academy of Sciences (2005); Biosensors and Bioelectronics Runner-up Award (2002), Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor Award (2002), University Scholar Award (2002), University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Campus Award for Excellence in Guiding Undergraduate Research (2003), Camile Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award (1999), University of Illinois SCS Excellence in Teaching Award (1999), National Science Foundation CARRER Award (1995) and Special Creativity Extension Award (1998), Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellowship (1998), Research Corporation Cottrell Scholars Award (1997), and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Young Investigators Award (1996).

  • Research

    Lu's group is using rational design and combinatorial engineering methods to obtain proteins and DNA/RNA for directed assembly of nano- or colloidal particles and for gated control of nanofluidic devices. These objects can be hierarchically integrated to possess high functional complexity. Success in this undertaking will lead to robust structures for a range of applications, such as selective sensing in environmental and homeland security applications, medical imaging using fluorescence and MRI, targeted drug delivery, nanoporous catalytic materials for organic transformation and for bioremediation, as well as new, integrated nanofabrication strategies in 3D for electronic, magnetic, and photonic systems.

  • 2016

    • Hosseinzadeh, P.; Lu, Y., Design and Fine-Tuning Redox Potentials of Metalloproteins Involved in Electron Transfer in Bioenergetics. Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta-Bioenergetics (BBA) 2016, 1857, 557-581.
    • Chauhan, S.; Hosseinzadeh, P.; Lu, Y.; Blackburn, N., Stopped-Flow Studies of the Reduction of the Copper Centers Suggest a Bifurcated Electron Transfer Pathway in Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase. Biochemistry 2016, 55, 2008-2021.
    • Hosseinzadeh, P.; Marshall, N. M.; Chacón, K. N.; Yu, Y.; Nilges, M. J.; New, S. Y.; Blackburn, N. J.; Lu, Y., Design of a Single Protein That Spans the Entire 2V Range of Physiological Redox Potentials. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA 2016, 113, 262-267.
    • Hosseinzadeh, P.; Mirts, E. N.; Pfister, T. D.; Gao, Y. G.; Mayne, C.; Robinson, H.; Tajkhorshid, E.; Lu, Y., Enhancing Mn(II)-Binding and Manganese Peroxidase Activity in a Designed Cytochrome C Peroxidase through Fine-Tuning Secondary-Sphere Interactions. Biochemistry 2016, 55, (10), 1494-1502, DOI:10.1021/ACS.biochem.5b01299.
    • Hosseinzadeh, P.; Tian, S.; Marshall, N. M.; Hemp, J.; Mullen, T.; Nilges, M. J.; Gao, Y. G.; Robinson, H.; Stahl, D. A.; Gennis, R. B.; Lu, Y., A Purple Cupredoxin from Nitrosopumilus Maritimus Containing a Mononuclear Type 1 Copper Center with an Open Binding Site. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016, 138, 6324-6327.
    • Lan, T.; Zhang, J.; Lu, Y., Transforming the Blood Glucose Meter into a General Healthcare Meter for in vitro Diagnostics in Mobile Health. Biotechnology Advances 2016, 34, 331-342.
    • Matsumura, H.; Chakraborty, S.; Reed, J.; Lu, Y.; Moënne-Loccoz, P., Effect of Outer-Sphere Side Chain Substitutions on the Fate of the Trans Iron-Nitrosyl Dimer in Heme/Nonheme Engineered Myoglobins (FeBMbs): Insights into the Mechanism of Denitrifying No Reductases. Biochemistry 2016, 55, 2008-2021.
    • Petrik, I. D.; Davydov, R.; Ross, M.; Zhao, X.; Hoffman, B.; Lu, Y., Spectroscopic and Crystallographic Evidence for the Role of a Water-Containing Hydrogen Bonding Network in Oxidase Activity of an Engineered Myoglobin. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2016, 136, (1134-1137).
    • Tian, S.; Liu, J.; Cowley, R. E.; Hosseinzadeh, P.; Marshall, N. M.; Yu, Y.; Robinson, H.; Nilges, M. J.; Blackburn, N. J.; Solomon, E. I.; Lu, Y., Reversible S-Nitrosylation in an Engineered Azurin and Its Application as No Regulator under Physiological Conditions. Nature Chemistry 2016, 8, 670-677.
    • Xing, H.; Hwang, K.; Lu, Y., Recent Developments of Liposomes as Nanocarriers for Theranostic Applications. Theranostics 6 (Thematic Issue on NanoTheranostics) 2016 1336-1352.
    • Xing, H.; Li, J.; Xu, W.; Hwang, K.; Wu, P.; Yin, Q.; Li, Z.; Cheng, J.; Lu, Y., The Effects of Spacer Length and Composition on Aptamer-Mediated Cell-Specific Targeting with Nanoscale Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin. ChemBioChem 2016, 17, (1111-1117).
    • Xing, H.; Zhang, C.; Ruan, G.; Zhang, J.; Hwang, K.; Lu, Y., Multimodal Detection of a Small Molecule Target Using Stimuli-Responsive Liposome Triggered by Aptamer-Enzyme Conjugate. Analytical Chemistry 2016, 88, 1506-1510.
    • Yan, L.; Lu, Y.; Li, X., A Density Functional Theory Protocol for the Calculation of Redox Potentials of Copper Complexes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2016, 18, 5529-5536.
    • Zhang, J.; Cheng, F.; Li, J.; Zhu, J.; Lu, Y., Fluorescent Nanoprobes for Metal Ion Sensing and Imaging: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives. Nano Today 2016, 11, 309-329.
    • Zhang, J.; Li, Z.; Zhao, S.; Lu, Y., Size-Dependent Modulation of Graphene Oxide-Aptamer Interaction for Amplified Fluorescent Detection of Aflatoxin B1 with Tunable Dynamic Range. Analyst 2016, 141, 4029-4034.
    • Zhang, J.; Xiang, Y.; Wang, M.; Basu, A.; Lu, Y., Dose-Dependent Response of Personal Glucose Meters to Nicotinamide Coenzymes: Applications to Point-of-Care Diagnostics of Many Non-Glucose Targets in a Single Step. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2016, 55, 732-736.


    • Bai, Y.; Xing, H.; Wu, P.; Feng, X.; Lee, J. M.; Phang, X. Y.; Lu, Y.; Zimmerman, S. C., Chemical Control over Cellular Uptake of Organic Nanoparticles by Fine Tuning Surface Functional Groups. ACS Nano 2015, 9, 10227-20236.
    • Bhagi-Damodaran, A.; Lu, Y., The Q, Compound Q Is Finally Deciphered. Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers 2015, 2, 824-826.
    • Chakraborty, S.; Polen, M. J.; Chacón, K. N.; Wilson, T. D.; Yu, Y.; Reed, J.; Nilges, M. J.; Blackburn, N. J.; Lu, Y., Binuclear CuA Formation in Biosynthetic Models of CuA in Azurin Proceeds via a Novel Cu(Cys)2 his Mononuclear Copper Intermediate. Biochemistry 2015, 54, 6071-6081.
    • Chakraborty, S.; Reed, J.; Sage, J. T.; Branagan, N. C.; Petrik, I. D.; Miner, K. D.; Hu, M. Y.; Zhao, J.; Alp, E. E.; Lu, Y., Recent Advances in Biosynthetic Modeling of Nitric Oxide Reductases and Insights Gained from Nuclear Resonance Vibrational and Other Spectroscopic Studies. Inorganic Chemistry 2015, 54, 9317-9329.
    • Gall, A. M.; Mariñas, B. J.; Lu, Y.; Shisler, J. L., Waterborne Viruses: A Barrier to Safe Drinking Water. PLos Pathology 2015, 11, (6), e1004867, DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004867.
    • Gu, C.; Lan, T.; Shi, H.; Lu, Y., Portable Detection of Melamine in Milk Using a Personal Glucose Meter Based on an in vitro Selected Structure-Switching Aptamer. Analytical Chemistry 2015, 87, 7676-7682.
    • Mukherjee, S.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhagi-Damodaran, A.; Mukherjee, M.; Lu, Y.; Dey, A., A Biosynthetic Model of Cytochrome C Oxidase as an Electrocatalysts for O2 Reduction. Nature Communications 2015, 6, 8467, DOI:10.1038/NCOMMS9467.
    • Pallares, R. M.; Kong, S. L.; Ru, T. H.; Thanh, N. T. K.; Lu, Y.; Su, X., A Plasmonic Nanosensor with Inverse Sensitivity for Circulating Cell-Free DNA Quantification. Chemical Communications 2015, 51, 14524-14527.
    • S.-F. Torabi, P. Wu, C.E. McGhee, L. Chen, K. Hwang, N. Zheng, J. Cheng, and Y. Lu, In vitro selection of a sodium-specific DNAzyme and its application in intracellular sensing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, 5903–5908 (2015).
    • Song, T.; Tang, L.; Tan, L. H.; Wang, X.; Satyavolu, N. S. R.; Xing, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.; Liang, H.; Lu, Y., DNA-Encoded Tuning of Geometric and Plasmonic Properties of Nanoparticles Growing from Gold Nanorod Seeds. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2015, 54, 8114-8118
    • Tan, L. H.; Yue, Y.; Satyavolu, N. S. R.; Ali, A. S.; Wang, Z.; Wu, Y.; Lu, Y., A Mechanistic Insight into DNA-Guided Control of Nanoparticle Morphologies. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137, 14456-14464.
    • Torabi, S. F.; Lu, Y., Identification of the Same Na+-Specific Dnazyme Motif from Two in vitro Selections at Different Conditions. Journal of Molecular Evolution 2015, 81, 225-234.
    • Yu, Y.; Chang, C.; Liu, X.; Petrik, I.; Wang, J.; Lu, Y., A Designed Metalloenzyme Achieving the Catalytic Rate of a Native Enzyme. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2015, 137, 11570-11573.
    • Zhang, J.; Xiang, Y.; Novak, D. E.; Hoganson, G. E.; Zhu, J.; Lu, Y., Using Personal Glucose Meter and Alkaline Phosphatase for Point-of-Care Quantification of Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase in Clinical Galactosemia Diagnosis. Chemistry Asian Journal 2015, 10, 2221-2227.


    • Farver, O.; Marshall, N. M.; Wherland, S.; Lu, Y.; Pecht, I., Designed Azurins Show Lower Reorganization Free Energies for Intra-Protein Electron Transfer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2013, 110, 10536–10540.
    • Li, L. L.; Wu, P. W.; Hwang, K.; Lu, Y., An Exceptionally Simple Strategy for DNA-Functionalized up-Conversion Nanoparticles as Biocompatible Agents for Nanoassembly, DNA Delivery, and Imaging. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013, 135, (7), 2411-2414.
    • Li, L.; Lu, Y., Functional DNA-Integrated Nanomaterials for Biosensing, In DNA Nanotechnology: From Structure to Function. Fan, C., Ed.; Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2013, 227-305.
    • Li, L.; Xie, M.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Wang, C.; Yuan, C.; Yuan, Q.; Pang, D.-W.; Lu, Y.; Tan, W., A Vitamin-Responsive Mesoporous Nanocarrier with DNA Aptamer-Mediated Cell Targeting. Chemical Communications 2013, 49, 5823-5825.
    • Marshall, N. M.; Miner, K. D.; Wilson, T.D.; Lu, Y., Rational Design of Protein Cages for Alternative Enzymatic Functions, In Coordination Chemistry in Protein Cages: Principles, Design, and Applications. Ueno, T., Watanabe, Y., Eds.; John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 111-150.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Bharathi, M. S.; Hariharaputran, R.; Xing, H.; Tang, L. H.; Li, J. H.; Zhang, Y. W.; Lu, Y., pH-Dependent Evolution of Five-Star Gold Nanostructures: An Experimental and Computational Study. ACS Nano 2013, 7, (3), 2258-2265.
    • Wilson, T. D.; Yu, Y.; Lu, Y., Understanding Copper-Thiolate Containing Electron Transfer Centers by Incorporation of Unnatural Amino Acids and the Cu-A Center into the Type 1 Copper Protein Azurin. Coordination Chemistry Reviews 2013, 257, (1), 260-276.
    • Wong, B.N.; Xing, H.; Tan, L. H.; Lu, Y., Nano-Encrypted Morse Code: A Versatile Approach to Programmable and Reversible Nanoscale Assembly and Disassembly. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013, 135, (8), 2931-2934.
    • Wu, P. W.; Hwang, K. V.; Lan, T.; Lu, Y., A Dnazyme-Gold Nanoparticle Probe for Uranyl Ion in Living Cells. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2013, 135, (14), 5254-5257.
    • Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., An Invasive DNA Approach toward a General Method for Portable Quantification of Metal Ions Using a Personal Glucose Meter. Chemical Communications 2013, 49, (6), 585-587.
    • Xiang, Y.; Wang, Z. D.; Xing, H.; Lu, Y., Expanding Dnazyme Functionality through Enzyme Cascades with Applications in Single Nucleotide Repair and Tunable DNA-Directed Assembly of Nanomaterials. Chemical Science 2013, 4, (1), 398-404.


    • Hadt, R. G.; Sun, N.; Marshall, N. M.; Hodgson, K. O.; Hedman, B.; Lu, Y.; Solomon, E. I., Spectroscopic and DFT Studies of Second-Sphere Variants of the Type 1 Copper Site in Azurin: Covalent and Nonlocal Electrostatic Contributions to Reduction Potentials. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134, (40), 16701-16716.
    • Ihms, H. E.; Lu, Y., In Vitro Selection of Metal Ion-Selective Dnazymes, In Ribozymes Methods and Protocols, ; Hartig, J. S., Ed.; Humana Press, Hatfield, UK, 2012, 297-316.
    • Lan, T.; Lu, Y., A Smart Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent Responsive to Adenosine Based on a DNA Aptamer-Conjugated Gadolinium Complex. Metal Ions in Life Sciences (Interplay between Metal Ions and Nucleic Acids) 2012, 10, 217-248.
    • Lee, J. H.; Wang, Z.; Lu, Y., Dnazyme-Based Sensing for Metal Ions in Ocean, In Molecular Biological Technologies for Ocean Sensing. Tiquia-Arashiro, S. M., Ed.; Spring, New York, NY, 2012, 103-116
    • Li, L. L.; Ge, P. H.; Selvin, P. R.; Lu, Y., Direct Detection of Adenosine in Undiluted Serum Using a Luminescent Aptamer Sensor Attached to a Terbium Complex. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, (18), 7852-7856.
    • Li, L. L.; Yin, Q.; Cheng, J. J.; Lu, Y., Polyvalent Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticle-Aptamer Bioconjugates Target Breast Cancer Cells. Advanced Healthcare Materials 2012, 1, (5), 567-572.
    • Li, L.; Zhang, R.; Yin, L.; Zheng, K.; Qin, W.; Selvin, P. R.; Lu, Y., Biomimetic Surface Engineering of Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion Nanoparticles as Versatile Bioprobes. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 6121-6125.
    • Liu, H.; Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y.; Crooks, R. M., Aptamer-Based Origami Paper Analytical Device for Electrochemical Detection of Adenosine. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2012, 51, (28), 6925-6928.
    • Liu, X. H.; Yu, Y.; Hu, C.; Zhang, W.; Lu, Y.; Wang, J. Y., Significant Increase of Oxidase Activity through the Genetic Incorporation of a Tyrosine-Histidine Cross-Link in a Myoglobin Model of Heme-Copper Oxidase. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2012, 51, (18), 4312-4316.
    • Liu, X.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, W.; Lu, Y.; Wang, J., Dramatic Increase of Oxidase Activity in a Genetic Incorporated Cross-Linked Tyrosine-Histidine in a Heme-Copper Oxidase Model of Myoglobin. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 4312-4316.
    • Lu, Y.; Marshall, N. M., Redox Potential, In Encyclopedia of Biophysics. Roberts, G., Ed.; Springer-Verlag, Berling Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 4, 2207-2211.
    • Miner, K. D.; Mukherjee, A.; Gao, Y. G.; Null, E. N.; Petrik, I. D.; Zhao, X.; Yeung, N.; Robinson, H.; Lu, Y., A Designed Functional Metalloenzyme That Reduces O2 to H2o with over One Thousand Turnovers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2012, 51, 5589-5592.
    • Nelson, K. E.; Ihms, H. E.; Mazumdar, D.; Bruesehoff, P. J.; Lu, Y., The Importance of Peripheral Sequences in Determining the Metal Selectivity of an in Vitro-Selected Co2+-Dependent Dnazyme. ChemBioChem 2012, 13, 381-391.
    • New, S. Y.; Marshall, N. M.; Andy Hor, T. S.; Xue, F.; Lu, Y., Redox Tuning of Two Biological Copper Centers through Non-Covalent Interactions: Same Trend but Different Magnitude. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 48, (4217-4219).
    • Shigeta, K.; He, Y.; Sutanto, E.; Kang, S.; Le, A. P.; Nuzzo, R. G.; Alleyne, A. G.; Ferreira, P. M.; Lu, Y.; Rogers, J. A., Functional Protein Microarrays by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, (22), 10012-10018.
    • Song, P.; Xiang, Y.; Xing, H.; Zhou, Z.; Tong, A.; Lu, Y., Label-Free Catalytic and Molecular Beacon Containing an Abasic Site for Sensitive Fluorescent Detection of Small Inorganic and Organic Molecules. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, 2916-2911.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Tang, L. H.; Tan, L. H.; Li, J. H.; Lu, Y., Discovery of the DNA "Genetic Code" for Abiological Gold Nanoparticle Morphologies. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2012, 51, (36), 9078-9082.
    • Wei, H.; Lu, Y., Catalysis of Gold Nanoparticles within Lysozyme Single Crystals. Chemistry - An Asian Journal 2012, 7, 680-683.
    • Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., Expanding Targets of Dnazyme-Based Sensors through Deactivation and Activation of Dnazymes by Single Uracil Removal: Sensitive Fluorescent Assay of Uracil-DNA Glycosylase. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, (22), 9981-9987.
    • Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., Portable and Quantitative Detection of Protein Biomarkers and Small Molecular Toxins Using Antibodies and Ubiquitous Personal Glucose Meters. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, 4174-4178.
    • Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., Using Commercially Available Personal Glucose Meters for Portable Quantification of DNA. Analytical Chemistry 2012, 84, 1975-1980.
    • Xing, H.; Wang, Z.; Xu, Z.; Wong, N. Y.; Xiang, Y.; Liu, G. L.; Lu, Y., DNA-Directed Assembly of Asymmetric Nanoclusters Using Janus Nanoparticles. ACS Nano 2012, 6, 802-809.
    • Zeng, H.; Zhao, J.; Wei, J. W.; Xu, D. H.; Leburton, J. P., Controllable Tuning of the Electronic Transport in Pre-Designed Graphene Nanoribbon. Current Applied Physics 2012, 12, (6), 1611-1614.
    • Zeng, W.; Barabanschikov, A.; Wang, N.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, J.; Sturhahn, W.; Alp, E. E.; Sage, J. T., Vibrational Dynamics of Oxygenated Heme Proteinswz. Chemical Communications 2012, 48, 6340-6342.


    • Garner, D. K.; Liang, L.; Barrios, D. A.; Zhang, J. L.; Lu, Y., The Important Role of Covalent Anchor Positions in Tuning Catalytic Properties of a Rationally Designed Mnsalen-Containing Metalloenzyme. ACS Catalysis (A special thematic issue on Biocatalysis and Biomimetic Catalysis) 2011, 1, 1083-1089.
    • Hayashi, T.; Miner, K.; Yeung, N.; Lin, Y.-W.; Lu, Y.; Moenne-Loccoz, P., Spectroscopic characterization of mononitrosyl complexes in heme-nonheme diiron centers within the myoglobin scaffold (FeBMbs). Biochemistry 2011, 50, 5939-5947.
    • He, Y.; Lu, Y., Metal-Ion-Dependent Folding of a Uranyl-Specific Dnazyme: Insight into Function from Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Studies. Chemistry - A European Journal 2011, 17, 13732-13742.
    • Nagraj, N.; Lu, Y., Catalytic Nucleic Acid Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring. In Nucleic Acid Biosensors for Environmental Pollution Monitoring, Palchetti, I.; Mascini, M., Eds. Royal Society of Chemistry: 2011; pp 82-98.
    • Torabi, S.-F.; Lu, Y., Small-molecule diagnostics based on functional DNA nanotechnology: a dipstick test for mercury. Faraday Discovery 2011, 149, (1), 125-135. 
    • Wei, H.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, J.; House, S.; Gao, Y.-G.; Yang, L.; Robinson, H.; Tan, L. H.; Xing, H.; Hou, C.; Robertson, I. M.; Zuo, J.-M.; Lu, Y., Time-dependent, protein-directed growth of gold nanoparticles within a single crystal of Iysozyme. Nature Nanotechnology 2011, 6, 93-97. 
    • Weichen, X.; Lu, Y., A smart magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent responsive to adenosine based on a DNA aptamer-conjugated gadolinium coplex. Chemical Communications 2011, 47, 4998-5000. 
    • Wilson, T. D.; Savelieff, M. G.; Nilges, M. J.; Marshall, N. M.; Lu, Y., Kinetics of Copper Incorporation into a Biosynthetic Purple Cua Azurin: Characterization of Red, Blue, and a New Intermediate Species. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2011, 133, 20778-20792.
    • Wong, N. Y.; Zhang, C.; Tan, L. H.; Lu, Y., Site-Specific Attachment of Proteins onto a 3D DNA Tetrahedron through backbone-modified Phosphorothioate DNA. Small 2011, 1427-1430. 
    • Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., Using Personal Glucose Meters and Functional DNA Sensors to Quantify a Variety of Analytical Targets. Nature Chemistry 2011, 3, 673-703.
    • Zhang, X.-B.; Kong, R.-M.; Lu, Y., Metal Ion Sensors Based on DNAzymes and Related DNA Molecules. Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry 2011, 4, 105-128. 


    • Lan, T.; Furuya, K.; Lu, Y., A highly selective lead sensor based on a classic lead DNAzyme. Chemical Communications 2010, 46, (22), 3896-3898.
    • Lee, J. H.; Wong, N. Y.; Tan, L. H.; Wang, Z.; Lu, Y., Controlled Alignment of Multiple Proteins and Nanoparticles with Nanometer Resolution via Backbone-Modified Phosphorothioate DNA and Bifunctional Linkers. Journal of American Chemical Society 2010, 132, (8906-8908). 
    • Lin, Y. W.; Yeung, N.; Gao, Y. G.; Miner, K. D.; Tian, S. L.; Robinson, H.; Lu, Y., Roles of glutamates and metal ions in a rationally designed nitric oxide reductase based on myoglobin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010, 107, (19), 8581-8586.
    • Lu, C. Y.; Zhao, X.; Lu, Y.; Rousseau, D. L.; Yeh, S. R., Role of Copper Ion in Regulating Ligand Binding in a Myoglobin-Based Cytochrome c Oxidase Model. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2010, 132, (5), 1598-1605.
    • Mazumdar, D.; Liu, J. W.; Lu, G.; Zhou, J. Z.; Lu, Y., Easy-to-use dipstick tests for detection of lead in paints using non-cross-linked gold nanoparticle-DNAzyme conjugates. Chemical Communications 2010, 46, (9), 1416-1418.
    • Null, E. L.; Lu, Y., Rapid determination of enantiomeric ratio using fluorescent DNA or RNA aptamers. Analyst 2010, 135, (2), 419-422.
    • Savelieff, M. G.; Lu, Y., Cu-A centers and their biosynthetic models in azurin. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 2010, 15, (4), 461-483.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Zhang, J. Q.; Ekman, J. M.; Kenis, P. J. A.; Lu, Y., DNA-Mediated Control of Metal Nanoparticle Shape: One-Pot Synthesis and Cellular Uptake of Highly Stable and Functional Gold Nanoflowers. Nano Letters 2010, 10, (5), 1886-1891.
    • Wei, H.; Wang, Z. D.; Yang, L. M.; Tian, S. L.; Hou, C. J.; Lu, Y., Lysozyme-stabilized gold fluorescent cluster: Synthesis and application as Hg2+ sensor. Analyst 2010, 135, (6), 1406-1410.
    • Xiang, Y.; Wang, Z. D.; Xing, H.; Wong, N. Y.; Lu, Y., Label-Free Fluorescent Functional DNA Sensors Using Unmodified DNA: A Vacant Site Approach. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (10), 4122-4129.
    • Xu, W. C.; Lu, Y., Label-Free Fluorescent Aptamer Sensor Based on Regulation of Malachite Green Fluorescence. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, (2), 574-578.
    • Berry, S. M.; Lu, Y. Protein Structure Design and Engineering.  
    • Clark, K. M.; Yu, Y.; Marshall, N. M.; Sieracki, N. A.; Nilges, M. J.; Blackburn, N. J.; van der Donk, W. A.; Lu, Y., Transforming a Blue Copper into a Red Copper Protein: Engineering Cysteine and Homocysteine into the Axial Position of Azurin Using Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Expressed Protein Ligation. Journal of American Chemical Society 2010, 132, 10093-10101. 
    • Lan, T.; Furuya, K.; Lu, Y., A highly sensitive lead sensor based on a classic lead DNAzyme. Chemical Communications 2010, 46, 3896-3898.
    • Lee, J. H.; Yigit, M. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Lu, Y., Molecular diagnostic and drug delivery agents based on aptamer-nanomaterial conjugates. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 2010, 62, 592-605. 
    • Lin, Y.-W.; Yeung, N.; Gao, Y.-G.; Miner, K. D.; Lanyu, L.; Robinson, H.; Lu, Y., Introducing a 2-His-1-Glu Nonheme Iron Center into Myoglobin Confers Nitric Oxide Reductse Activity. Journal of American Chemical Society 2010, 132, 9970-9972.
    • Lu, Y., Metal ions as matchmakers for proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010, 107, 1811-1812.
    • Thorum, M. S.; Anderson, C. A.; Hatch, J. J.; Campbell, A. S.; Marshall, N. M.; Zimmerman, S. C.; Lu, Y.; Gewirth, A. A., Direct, Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction by Laccase on Anthracene-2-methanethiol-Modified Gold. Journal Physical Chemistry Letters 2010, 1, 2251-2254. 
    • Zhang, X.-B.; Wang, Z.; Xing, H.; Xiang, Y.; Lu, Y., Catalytic and Molecular Beacons for Amplified Detection of Metal Ions and Organic Molecules with High Sensitivity. Analytical Chemistry 2010, 82, 5005-5011. 


    • Cao, Z. H.; Tong, R.; Mishra, A.; Xu, W. C.; Wong, G. C. L.; Cheng, J. J.; Lu, Y., Reversible Cell-Specific Drug Delivery with Aptamer-Functionalized Liposomes. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2009, 48, (35), 6494-6498.
    • Clark, K. M.; van der Donk, W. A.; Lu, Y., Expressed Protein Ligation for Metalloprotein Design and Engineering. In Methods in Enzymology: Non-Natural Amino Acids, 2009; Vol. 462, pp 97-115.
    • Huo, D. Q.; Yang, L. M.; Hou, C. J.; Fa, H. B.; Luo, X. G.; Lu, Y.; Zheng, X. L.; Yang, J.; Yang, L., Molecular interactions of monosulfonate tetraphenylporphyrin (TPPS1) and meso-tetra(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS) with dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP). Spectrochimica Acta Part a-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy 2009, 74, (2), 336-343.
    • Lu, Y., DNAzyme and Aptamer Sensors for On-Site and Real-Time Detection of a Broad Range of Environmental Toxins. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 2009, 50, (7), 534-534.
    • Lu, Y.; Moore, J. E., Semi-Fused Hexaphenyl Hexa-perihexabenzocoronene: A Novel Fluorophore from an Intramolecular Scholl Reaction. Tetrahedron Letters 2009, 50, (28), 4071-4007.
    • Lu, Y.; Yeung, N.; Sieracki, N.; Marshall, N. M., Design of functional metalloproteins. Nature 2009, 460, (7257), 855-862.
    • Marshall, N. M.; Garner, D. K.; Wilson, T. D.; Gao, Y. G.; Robinson, H.; Nilges, M. J.; Lu, Y., Rationally tuning the reduction potential of a single cupredoxin beyond the natural range. Nature 2009, 462, (7269), 113-U127.
    • Nagraj, N.; Liu, J. W.; Sterling, S.; Wu, J.; Lu, Y., DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensors that resist temperature-dependent variations. Chemical Communications 2009, (27), 4103-4105.
    • Ravel, B.; Slimmer, S. C.; Meng, X.; Wong, G. C. L.; Lu, Y., EXAFS studies of catalytic DNA sensors for mercury contamination of water. Radiation Physics and Chemistry 2009, 78, S75-S79.
    • Wu, Z. Y.; Liu, Q.; Liang, X.; Yang, X. L.; Wang, N. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, H. Z.; Lu, Y.; Guo, Z. J., Reactivity of platinum-based antitumor drugs towards a Met- and His-rich 20mer peptide corresponding to the N-terminal domain of human copper transporter 1. Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry 2009, 14, (8), 1313-1323.
    • Xiang, Y.; Tong, A. J.; Lu, Y., Abasic Site-Containing DNAzyme and Aptamer for Label-Free Fluorescent Detection of Pb2+ and Adenosine with High Sensitivity, Selectivity, and Tunable Dynamic Range. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009, 131, (42), 15352-15357.
    • Yeung, N.; Lin, Y. W.; Gao, Y. G.; Zhao, X.; Russell, B. S.; Lei, L. Y.; Miner, K. D.; Robinson, H.; Lu, Y., Rational design of a structural and functional nitric oxide reductase. Nature 2009, 462, (7276), 1079-U144.
    • Yigit, M. V.; Mishra, A.; Tong, R.; Cheng, J. J.; Wong, G. C. L.; Lu, Y., Inorganic Mercury Detection and Controlled Release of Chelating Agents from Ion-Responsive Liposomes. Chemistry & Biology 2009, 16, (9), 937-942.
    • Zhang, J. L.; Garner, D. K.; Liang, L.; Barrios, D. A.; Lu, Y., Noncovalent Modulation of pH-Dependent Reactivity of a Mn-Salen Cofactor in Myoglobin with Hydrogen Peroxide. Chemistry-a European Journal 2009, 15, (30), 7481-7489.
    • Zhu, J. H.; Lin, M. X.; Fan, D. M.; Wu, Z. Y.; Chen, Y. C.; Zhang, J. F.; Lu, Y.; Guo, Z. J., The role of bridging ligands in determining DNA-binding ability and cross-linking patterns of dinuclear platinum(II) antitumour complexes. Dalton Transactions 2009, (48), 10889-10895.
    • Zhu, J. H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. Y.; Lin, M. X.; He, W. J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G. J.; Dong, L.; Zhang, J. F.; Lu, Y.; Guo, Z. J., DNA Cross-Linking Patterns Induced by an Antitumor-Active Trinuclear Platinum Complex and Comparison with Its Dinuclear Analogue. Chemistry-a European Journal 2009, 15, (21), 5245-5253.
    • Brown, A. K.; Liu, J. W.; He, Y.; Lu, Y., Biochemical Characterization of a Uranyl Ion-Specific DNAzyme. Chembiochem 2009, 10, (3), 486-492.
    • Cao, Z.; Lu, Y., New Metallo-DNAzymes: Fundamental Studies of Metal-DNA Interactions and Metal Sensing Applications. In Metal Complex-DNA Interactions, Hadjiliadis, N.; Sletten, E., Eds. Wiley-Blackwell: Oxford, UK, 2009.
    • Li, Y.; Lu, Y., Functional Nucleic Acids for Sensing and Other Analytical Applications. Springer: New York, NY, 2009.
    • Liu, J. W.; Cao, Z. H.; Lu, Y., Functional Nucleic Acid Sensors. Chemical Reviews 2009, 109, (5), 1948-1998.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Colorimetric Biosensors Based on Directed Assembly of Nanoparticles with Functional DNA. In Functional Nucleic Acids for Sensing and Other Analytical Applications, Li, Y.; Lu, Y., Eds. Springer: New York, NY, 2009; pp 155-178.
    • Lu, Y.; Liu, J.; Mazumdar, D., Nanoparticles/Dip Stick. In Methods in Molecular Biology: Nucleic Acid and Peptide Aptamers, Mayer, G., Ed. Springer: New York, NY, 2009; Vol. 535, pp 223-240.
    • Mazumdar, D.; Nagraj, N.; Kim, H. K.; Meng, X. L.; Brown, A. K.; Sun, Q.; Li, W.; Lu, Y., Activity, Folding and Z-DNA Formation of the 8-17 DNAzyme in the Presence of Monovalent Ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2009, 131, (15), 5506-5515.
    • Nandini, N.; Liu, J.; Sterling, S.; Wu, J.; Lu, Y., DNAzyme Catalytic Beacon Sensors that Resist Temperature-dependent Variations. Chemical Communications 2009, 4103-5.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Lu, Y., Functional DNA directed assembly of nanomaterials for biosensing. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2009, 19, (13), 1788-1798.
    • Zhu, J. H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. Y.; Wu, Z. Y.; Lin, M. X.; He, W. J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G. J.; Dong, L.; Zhang, J. F.; Lu, Y.; Guo, Z. J., DNA Cross-Linking Patterns Induced by an Antitumor-Active Trinuclear Platinum Complex and Comparison with Its Dinuclear Analogue. Chemistry-A European Journal 2009, 15, (21), 5245-5253.


    • Dalavoy, T. S.; Wernette, D. P.; Gong, M. J.; Sweedler, J. V.; Lu, Y.; Flachsbart, B. R.; Shannon, M. A.; Bohn, P. W.; Cropek, D. M., Immobilization of DNAzyme catalytic beacons on PMMA for Pb2+ detection. Lab on a Chip 2008, 8, (5), 786-793.
    • Kim, H. K.; Li, J.; Nagraj, N.; Lu, Y., Probing Metal Binding in the 8-17 DNAzyme by Tb-III Luminescence Spectroscopy. Chemistry-a European Journal 2008, 14, (28), 8696-8703.
    • Lee, J. H.; Wang, Z. D.; Liu, J. W.; Lu, Y., Highly Sensitive and Selective Colorimetric Sensors for Uranyl (UO22+) : Development and Comparison of Labeled and Label-Free DNAzyme-Gold Nanoparticle Systems. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130, (43), 14217-14226.
    • Lu, Y.; Liu, J., Catalyst-functionalized Nanomaterials. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews (WIREs) : Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology 2008, 1 (35).
    • Park, J. U.; Lee, J. H.; Paik, U.; Lu, Y.; Rogers, J. A., Nanoscale Patterns of Oligonucleotides Formed by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printing with Applications in Biosensing and Nanomaterials Assembly. Nano Letters 2008, 8, (12), 4210-4216.
    • Savelieff, M. G.; Wilson, T. D.; Elias, Y.; Nilges, M. J.; Garner, D. K.; Lu, Y., Experimental evidence for a link among cupredoxins: Red, blue, and purple copper transformations in nitrous oxide reductase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2008, 105, (23), 7919-7924.
    • Shyr, M. H. S.; Wernette, D. P.; Wiltzius, P.; Lu, Y.; Braun, P. V., DNA and DNAzyme-Mediated 2D colloidal assembly. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2008, 130, (26), 8234-8240.
    • Sieracki, N. A.; Hwang, H. J.; Lee, M. K.; Garner, D. K.; Lu, Y., A temperature independent pH (TIP) buffer for biomedical biophysical applications at low temperatures. Chemical Communications 2008, (7), 823-825.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Lee, J. H.; Lu, Y., Highly sensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor for Hg2+ in aqueous solution based on structure-switching DNA. Chemical Communications 2008, (45), 6005-6007.
    • Wang, Z. D.; Lee, J. H.; Lu, Y., Label-free colorimetric detection of lead ions with a nanomolar detection limit and tunable dynamic range by using gold nanoparticles and DNAzyme. Advanced Materials 2008, 20, (17), 3263-3267.
    • Wernette, D. P.; Liu, J. W.; Bohn, P. W.; Lu, Y., Functional-DNA-Based nanoscale materials and devices for sensing trace contaminants in water. MRS Bulletin 2008, 33, (1), 34-41.
    • Yeung, N.; Lu, Y., One heme, diverse functions: Using biosynthetic myoglobin models to gain insights into heme-copper oxidases and nitric oxide reductases. Chemistry & Biodiversity 2008, 5, (8), 1437-1454.
    • Yigit, M. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Lu, Y., MRI detection of thrombin with aptamer functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Bioconjugate Chemistry 2008, 19, (2), 412-417.
    • Zhang, J. L.; Garner, D. K.; Liang, L.; Chen, Q.; Lu, Y., Protein scaffold of a designed metalloenzyme enhances the chemoselectivity in sulfoxidation of thioanisole. Chemical Communications 2008, (14), 1665-1667.


    • Kim, H. K.; Rasnik, I.; Liu, J. W.; Ha, T. J.; Lu, Y., Dissecting metal ion-dependent folding and catalysis of a single DNAzyme. Nature Chemical Biology 2007, 3, (12), 762-768.
    • Kim, H.; Liu, J.; Li, J.; Nagraj, N.; Li, M.; Lu, Y., Metal-dependent global folding and activity of the 8-17 DNAzyme studied by fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2007, 129, 6896-6902.
    • Lee, J. H.; Wernette, D. P.; Yigit, M. V.; Liu, J.; Wang, Z.; Lu, Y., Site-specific control of distances between gold nanoparticles using phosphorothioate anchors on DNA and a short bifunctional molecular fastener. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2007, 46, (47), 9006-9010.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., A DNAzyme catalytic beacon sensor for paramagnetic Cu2+ ions in aqueous solution with high sensitivity and selectivity. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2007, 129, (32), 9838-9839.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Colorimetric Cu2+ detection with a ligation DNAzyme and nanopairticles. Chemical Communications 2007, (46), 4872-4874.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Rational design of "Turn-On" allosteric DNAzyme catalytic beacons for aqueous mercury ions with ultrahigh sensitivity and selectivity. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2007, 46, (40), 7587-7590.
    • Liu, J. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lu, Y., Quantum dot encoding of aptamer-linked nanostructures for one-pot simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. Analytical Chemistry 2007, 79, (11), 4120-4125.
    • Liu, J. W.; Lu, Y., Smart nanomaterials responsive to multiple chemical stimuli with controllable cooperativity. Advanced Materials 2006, 18, (13), 1667-1671.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Non-base pairing DNA provides a new dimension for controlling aptamer-linked nanoparticles and sensors. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2007, 129, 8634-8643.
    • Lu, Y.; Liu, J., Nanomaterials Inspired by Biology: Dynamic assembly of error-free nanomaterials in response to multiple chemical stimuli. Accounts of Chemical Research 2007, 40, 315-323.
    • Wernette, D. P.; Mead, C.; Bohn, P. W.; Lu, Y., Surface immobilization of catalytic beacons based on ratiometric fluorescent DNAzyme sensors: A systematic study. Langmuir 2007, 23, (18), 9513-9521.
    • Yigit, M. V.; Mazumdar, D.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, J. H.; Dintsov, B.; Lu, Y., Smart "Turn-on" magnetic resonance contrast agents based on aptamer-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. ChemBioChem 2007, 8, (14), 1675-1678.


    • Garner, D. K.; Vaughan, M. D.; Hwang, H. J.; Savelieff, M. G.; Berry, S. M.; Honek, J. F.; Lu, Y., Reduction potential tuning of the blue copper center in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin by the axial methionine as probed by unnatural amino acids. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2006, 128, (49), 15608-15617.
    • Liu, J. W.; Lu, Y., Design of asymmetric DNAzymes for dynamic control of nanoparticle aggregation states in response to chemical stimuli. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 2006, 4, (18), 3435-3441.
    • Liu, J. W.; Mazumdar, D.; Lu, Y., A simple and sensitive "dipstick" test in serum based on lateral flow separation of aptamer-linked nanostructures". Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2006, 45, (47), 7955-7959.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Fast Colorimetric Sensing of Adenosine and Cocaine Based on a General Sensor Design Involving Aptamers and Nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 90-94.
    • Liu, J.; Lu, Y., Preparation of aptamer-linked gold nanoparticle purple aggregates for colorimetric sensing of analytes. Nature Protocol 2006, 1, 246-252.
    • Lu, Y., Biosynthethic inorganic chemistry. Angewandte Chemie-International Edition 2006, 45, (34), 5588-5601.
    • Lu, Y., Metalloprotein and metallo-DNA/RNAzyme design: Current approaches, success measures, and future challenges. Inorganic Chemistry 2006, 45, (25), 9930-9940.
    • Lu, Y.; Liu, J. W., Functional DNA nanotechnology: emerging applications of DNAzymes and aptamers. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17, (6), 580-588.
    • Wernette, D.; Swearingen, C.; Cropek, D.; Lu, Y.; Sweedler, J.; Bohn, P., Incorporation of a DNAzyme into Au-coated nanocapillary array membranes with and internal standard for Pb(II) sensing" Analyst 2006, 131, 41-47.
    • Zhao, X.; Yeung, N.; Russell, B. S.; Garner, D. K.; Lu, Y., Catalytic reduction of NO to N2O by a designed heme copper center in myoglobin: Implications for the role of metal ions. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2006, 128, (21), 6766-6767.


    • In-Hyoung Chang, Joseph Tulock, Juewen Liu, Won-Suk Kim, Donald Cannon Jr., Yi Lu, Paul Bohn, Jonathan Sweedler, Donald Cropek (2005) "Miniaturized Lead Sensor Based on Lead-Specific DNAzyme in a Nanocapillary Interconnected Microfluidic Device" Environ. Sci. Technol, 39, 3756-3761.
    • Juewen Liu and Yi Lu (2005) "Stimuli-Responsive Disassembly of Nanoparticle Aggregates for Light-Up Colorimetric Sensing" J. Am. Chem. Soc., 127, 12677-12683.
    • Juewen Liu, Daryl P. Wernette, and Yi Lu (2005) "Proof-Reading and Error Removal in a Nanomaterial Assembly" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 44, 7290-7293.