Directory

Timothy W. Bretl's directory photo.

Timothy W. Bretl

(he/him/his)

Professor

Primary Affiliation

Autonomous Materials Systems

Affiliations

Status Affiliate Faculty

Home Department of Aerospace Engineering

Phone 244-3126

Email tbretl@illinois.edu

Address

  • Biography

    Tim Bretl is a professor in the Department of Aerospace Engineering. He joined the Aerospace Engineering faculty at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2006. He is a faculty member in the Beckman Institute Artificial Intelligence Group.

    Tim's dissertation focused on motion planning for large free-climbing robots, which (like human free-climbers) rely only on frictional contact with rock features, not tools like pitons. This research led to a working implementation on a real robot, in cooperation with NASA-JPL. Most recently, he was a postdoctoral fellow in computer science at Stanford University, where he extended this work to a variety of other legged robots, including a humanoid and a hexapod for lunar exploration.

    Education

    • B.S., engineering, Swarthmore College, 1999
    • B.A., mathematics, Swarthmore College, 1999
    • M.S., aeronautics and astronautics, Stanford University, 2000
    • Ph.D., aeronautics and astronautics, Stanford University, 2005
  • Honors
    • 2016: William L. Everett Award for Teaching Excellence 
    • 2012 (Spring): List of Teachers Ranked as Excellent by Their Students 
    • 2012: Finalist, Best Application Paper, IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems 
    • 2012: Best Manipulation Paper, International Conference on Robotics and Automation
    • 2010: NSF CAREER Award 
  • Research

    Research interests:

    • engineering education

    • rehabilitation robotics (upper- and lower-limb prosthetic devices)

    • brain-machine interfaces

    • optimal control

    • robotic manipulation

    • motion planning

    • theoretical and algorithmic foundations of robotics and automation


    Tim develops tools for motion analysis, planning, and control. These tools include geometric search algorithms, methods of model reduction, and convex optimization routines that take advantage of problem structure. He is applying these tools to a diverse set of mechanical and biological systems: legged robots for planetary exploration, autonomous sailplanes for atmospheric and environmental science, neuro-prosthetic devices with a control interface designed using biological principles, and robotic manipulators for intelligent machining of deformable objects. All of these applications are safety-critical, so there is a strong emphasis on trust: tools must be practical, easy to implement, and have verifiable performance guarantees.

  • 2024

    • The Impact of Adverse Environmental Conditions on Fiducial Marker Detection from Rotorcraft Choi, S. Y., Lee, J. and Bretl, T., 2024, AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, (AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024).
    • The Use of Multi-Scale Fiducial Markers To Aid Takeoff and Landing Navigation by Rotorcraft Lee, J., Choi, S. Y. and Bretl, T., 2024, AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, (AIAA SciTech Forum and Exposition, 2024).

    2023

    • Closed-Loop Control of Front Speed During Frontal Polymerization of Dicyclopentadiene—A Numerical Study Schaer, G. and Bretl, T., Aug 2023, In: Advanced Theory and Simulations. 6, 8, 2300015.
    • Determining the Best Policies for Second-Chance Tests for STEM Students Emeka, C. A., Smith, D. H., Zilles, C., West, M., Herman, G. L. and Bretl, T., Jun 25 2023, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.
    • Hypergraph-Based Multi-robot Task and Motion Planning Motes, J., Chen, T., Bretl, T., Aguirre, M. M. and Amato, N. M., Oct 1 2023, In: IEEE Transactions on Robotics. 39, 5, p. 4166-4186 21 p.
    • Pointwise Sufficient Conditions for One-Dimensional Optimal Control Problems Borum, A. and Bretl, T., 2023, In: IEEE Control Systems Letters. 7, p. 3830-3835 6 p.
    • Second-Chance Testing as a Means of Reducing Students' Test Anxiety and Improving Outcomes Emeka, C. A., Zilles, C., West, M., Herman, G. L. and Bretl, T., Jun 25 2023, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.
    • System Identification of a Subscale Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Perry, A. T., Bretl, T. and Ansell, P. J., May 2023, In: Journal of Aircraft. 60, 3, p. 702-715 14 p.
    • TrackDLO: Tracking Deformable Linear Objects Under Occlusion With Motion Coherence Xiang, J., Dinkel, H., Zhao, H., Gao, N., Coltin, B., Smith, T. and Bretl, T., Oct 1 2023, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 8, 10, p. 6179-6186 8 p.

    2022

    • Environment Warped Gait Trajectory Optimization for Complex Terrains Pan, Z., Chen, T., Fang, X., Bretl, T., Gao, X. and Wu, K., Oct 1 2022, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 7, 4, p. 12403-12410 8 p.
    • Extrinsic Calibration of Multiple Inertial Sensors From Arbitrary Trajectories Lee, J., Hanley, D. and Bretl, T., Apr 1 2022, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 7, 2, p. 2055-2062 8 p.
    • ICaps: Iterative Category-Level Object Pose and Shape Estimation Deng, X., Geng, J., Bretl, T., Xiang, Y. and Fox, D., Apr 1 2022, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 7, 2, p. 1784-1791 8 p.
    • Truly Deterministic Policy Optimization Saleh, E., Ghaffari, S., Bretl, T. and West, M., 2022, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 35 - 36th Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems, NeurIPS 2022. Koyejo, S., Mohamed, S., Agarwal, A., Belgrave, D., Cho, K. and Oh, A. (eds.). Neural information processing systems foundation, (Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems; vol. 35).

    2021

    • A preliminary framework and feasibility study for spacecraft disturbance source detection and isolation with distributed inertial sensors Augustyniak, A. J., Hanley, D., Bretl, T., Hejmanowski, N. J. and Carroll, D. L., 2021, AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, p. 1-16 16 p. (AIAA Scitech 2021 Forum).
    • Aeropropulsive coupling effects on a general-aviation aircraft with distributed electric propulsion Perry, A. T., Bretl, T. and Ansell, P. J., 2021, In: Journal of Aircraft. 58, 6, p. 1351-1363 13 p.
    • PoseRBPF: A Rao–Blackwellized Particle Filter for 6-D Object Pose Tracking Deng, X., Mousavian, A., Xiang, Y., Xia, F., Bretl, T. and Fox, D., Oct 1 2021, In: IEEE Transactions on Robotics. 37, 5, p. 1328-1342 15 p.
    • Students' Perceptions and Behavior Related to Second-Chance Testing Emeka, C., Bretl, T., Herman, G., West, M. and Zilles, C., 2021, Proceedings - 2021 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE 2021. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., (Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE; vol. 2021-October).
    • The Impact of Height on Indoor Positioning with Magnetic Fields Hanley, D., De Oliveira, A. S. D., Zhang, X., Kim, D. H., Wei, Y. and Bretl, T., 2021, In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement. 70, 9354181.

    2020

    • A Quantitative Analysis of When Students Choose to Grade Questions on Computerized Exams with Multiple Attempts Verma, A., Bretl, T., West, M. and Zilles, C., Aug 12 2020, L@S 2020 - Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 329-332 4 p. (L@S 2020 - Proceedings of the 7th ACM Conference on Learning @ Scale).
    • Comparison of Grade Replacement and Weighted Averages for Second-Chance Exams Herman, G. L., Cai, Z., Bretl, T., Zilles, C. and West, M., Aug 10 2020, ICER 2020 - Proceedings of the 2020 ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research. Association for Computing Machinery, p. 56-66 11 p. (ICER 2020 - Proceedings of the 2020 ACM Conference on International Computing Education Research).
    • Impact of integrating computation into undergraduate curriculum: New modules and long-term trends Lu, G. M., Trinkle, D. R., Schleife, A., Leal, C., Krogstad, J., Maass, R., Bellon, P., Huang, P. Y., Perry, N. H., West, M., Bretl, T. and Herman, G. L., Jun 22 2020, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings. 2020-June, 797.
    • Infinitely long isotropic Kirchhoff rods with helical centerlines cannot be stable Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Aug 2020, In: Physical Review E. 102, 2, p. 023004 023004.
    • Motion planning for dual-arm manipulation of elastic rods Sintov, A., Macenski, S., Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Oct 2020, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 5, 4, p. 6065-6072 8 p., 9146666.
    • Self-supervised 6D Object Pose Estimation for Robot Manipulation Deng, X., Xiang, Y., Mousavian, A., Eppner, C., Bretl, T. and Fox, D., May 2020, 2020 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2020. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 3665-3671 7 p. 9196714. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation).
    • The effects of second-chance testing on learning outcomes in a first-year STEM course in engineering Schmitz, C. D., Herman, G. L. and Bretl, T., Jun 22 2020, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings. 2020-June, 1355.
    • When Is a Helix Stable? Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Aug 21 2020, In: Physical review letters. 125, 8, 088001.

    2019

    • Effect of discrete and continuous parameter variation on difficulty in automatic item generation Chen, B., Zilles, C., West, M. and Bretl, T., 2019, Artificial Intelligence in Education - 20th International Conference, AIED 2019, Proceedings. Isotani, S., Millán, E., Ogan, A., McLaren, B., Hastings, P. and Luckin, R. (eds.). Springer, p. 71-83 13 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 11625 LNAI).
    • Epstein, Project Maven, and Some Reasons to Think about Where We Get Our Funding [Ethical, Legal, and Societal Issues] Bretl, T., Righetti, L. and Madhavan, R., Dec 2019, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Magazine. 26, 4, p. 8-13 6 p., 8931077.
    • Every university should have a computer-based testing facility Zilles, C., West, M., Herman, G. and Bretl, T., 2019, CSEDU 2019 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Education. Lane, H., Zvacek, S. and Uhomoibhi, J. (eds.). SciTePress, p. 414-420 7 p. (CSEDU 2019 - Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Computer Supported Education; vol. 1).
    • Impact of computational curricular reform on non-participating undergraduate courses: Student and faculty perspective Lee, C. W., Schleife, A., Trinkle, D. R., Krogstad, J. A., Maass, R., Bellon, P., Shang, J. K., Leal, C., West, M., Bretl, T., Herman, G. L. and Tang, S., Jun 15 2019, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings.
    • Large-area MRI-compatible epidermal electronic interfaces for prosthetic control and cognitive monitoring Tian, L., Zimmerman, B., Akhtar, A., Yu, K. J., Moore, M., Wu, J., Larsen, R. J., Lee, J. W., Li, J., Liu, Y., Metzger, B., Qu, S., Guo, X., Mathewson, K. E., Fan, J. A., Cornman, J., Fatina, M., Xie, Z., Ma, Y. and Zhang, J. and 9 others, , Mar 1 2019, In: Nature biomedical engineering. 3, 3, p. 194-205 12 p.
    • PoseRBPF: A Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filter for 6D Object Pose Tracking Deng, X., Mousavian, A., Xiang, Y., Xia, F., Bretl, T. and Fox, D., 2019, Robotics: Science and Systems XV. Bicchi, A., Kress-Gazit, H. & Hutchinson, S. (eds.). MIT Press Journals, (Robotics: Science and Systems).
    • System identification and dynamics modeling of a distributed electric propulsion aircraft Perry, A. T., Bretl, T. and Ansell, P. J., 2019, AIAA Aviation 2019 Forum. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, p. 1-14 14 p. (AIAA Aviation 2019 Forum).

    2018

    • Computational curriculum for MatSE undergraduates and the influence on senior classes Zhang, X., Schleife, A., Ferguson, A., Bellon, P., Bretl, T., Herman, G. L., Krogstad, J. A., Maass, R., Leal, C., Trinkle, D. R., Shang, J. K. and West, M., Jun 23 2018, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings. 2018-June
    • Controlling sensation intensity for electrotactile stimulation in human-machine interfaces Akhtar, A., Sombeck, J., Boyce, B. and Bretl, T., Apr 2018, In: Science Robotics. 3, 17, eaap9770.
    • Design and Development of a Dynamically, Scaled Distributed Electric Propulsion Aircraft Testbed Pieper, K., Perry, A., Ansell, P. and Bretl, T., Nov 29 2018, 2018 AIAA/IEEE Electric Aircraft Technologies Symposium, EATS 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8552755. (2018 AIAA/IEEE Electric Aircraft Technologies Symposium, EATS 2018).
    • Experimental Evaluation of the Planar Assumption in Magnetic Positioning Hanley, D., Zhang, X., Dantas De Oliveira, A. S., Steinberg, D. and Bretl, T., Nov 13 2018, IPIN 2018 - 9th International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8533828. (IPIN 2018 - 9th International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation).
    • FEATS: Synthetic feature tracks for structure from motion evaluation Degol, J., Lee, J. Y., Kataria, R., Yuan, D., Bretl, T. and Hoiem, D., Oct 12 2018, Proceedings - 2018 International Conference on 3D Vision, 3DV 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 352-361 10 p. 8490986. (Proceedings - 2018 International Conference on 3D Vision, 3DV 2018).
    • Feature-constrained Active Visual SLAM for Mobile Robot Navigation Deng, X., Zhang, Z., Sintov, A., Huang, J. and Bretl, T., Sep 10 2018, 2018 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2018. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 7233-7238 6 p. 8460721. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation).
    • Improved Structure from Motion Using Fiducial Marker Matching DeGol, J., Bretl, T. and Hoiem, D., 2018, Computer Vision – ECCV 2018 - 15th European Conference, 2018, Proceedings. Ferrari, V., Sminchisescu, C., Hebert, M. and Weiss, Y. (eds.). Springer, p. 281-296 16 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); vol. 11207 LNCS).
    • Making testing less trying: Lessons learned from operating a computer-based testing facility Zilles, C., West, M., Mussulman, D. and Bretl, T., Jul 2 2018, Frontiers in Education: Fostering Innovation Through Diversity, FIE 2018 - Conference Proceedings. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 8658551. (Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE; vol. 2018-October).
    • Motion planning of fully actuated closed kinematic chains with revolute joints: A comparative analysis Sintov, A., Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Oct 2018, In: IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters. 3, 4, p. 2886-2893 8 p.
    • Teaching undergraduate courses on robotics and control in prison Bretl, T., Sep 2018, Mechanical Engineering, 140, 9, p. S11-S16.
    • The performance of 9-11-year-old children using an SSVEP-based BCI for target selection Norton, J. J. S., Mullins, J., Alitz, B. E. and Bretl, T., Jul 27 2018, In: Journal of Neural Engineering. 15, 5, 056012.

    2017

    • A compliant four-bar linkage mechanism that makes the fingers of a prosthetic hand more impact resistant Choi, K. Y., Akhtar, A. and Bretl, T., Jul 21 2017, ICRA 2017 - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 6694-6699 6 p. 7989791. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation).
    • A portable, arbitrary waveform, multichannel constant current electrotactile stimulator Cornman, J., Akhtar, A. and Bretl, T., Aug 10 2017, 8th International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER 2017. IEEE Computer Society, p. 300-303 4 p. 8008350. (International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, NER).
    • ChromaTag: A Colored Marker and Fast Detection Algorithm Degol, J., Bretl, T. and Hoiem, D., Dec 22 2017, Proceedings - 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision, ICCV 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1481-1490 10 p. 8237426. (Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision; vol. 2017-October).
    • Computational curriculum for MatSE undergraduates Kononov, A., Bellon, P., Bretl, T., Ferguson, A. L., Herman, G. L., Kilian, K. A., Krogstad, J. A., Leal, C., Maass, R., Schleife, A., Shang, J. K., Trinkle, D. R. and West, M., Jun 24 2017, In: ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings. 2017-June
    • Estimation of distal arm joint angles from EMG and shoulder orientation for transhumeral prostheses Akhtar, A., Aghasadeghi, N., Hargrove, L. and Bretl, T., Aug 2017, In: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology. 35, p. 86-94 9 p.
    • MagPIE: A dataset for indoor positioning with magnetic anomalies Hanley, D., Faustino, A. B., Zelman, S. D., Degenhardt, D. A. and Bretl, T., Nov 20 2017, 2017 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, IPIN 2017. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 1-8 8 p. (2017 International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, IPIN 2017; vol. 2017-January).
    • Reduction of Sufficient Conditions for Optimal Control Problems with Subgroup Symmetry Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Jul 2017, In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. 62, 7, p. 3209-3224 16 p., 7742897.
    • The elicitation of steady-state visual evoked potentials during sleep Norton, J. J. S., Umunna, S. and Bretl, T., Apr 1 2017, In: Psychophysiology. 54, 4, p. 496-507 12 p.

    2016

    • A low-cost, open-source, compliant hand for enabling sensorimotor control for people with transradial amputations Akhtar, A., Choi, K. Y., Fatina, M., Cornman, J., Wu, E., Sombeck, J., Yim, C., Slade, P., Lee, J., Moore, J., Gonzales, D., Wu, A., Anderson, G., Rotter, D., Shin, C. and Bretl, T., Oct 13 2016, 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 4642-4645 4 p. 7591762. (Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS; vol. 2016-October).
    • An Epidermal Stimulation and Sensing Platform for Sensorimotor Prosthetic Control, Management of Lower Back Exertion, and Electrical Muscle Activation Xu, B., Akhtar, A., Liu, Y., Chen, H., Yeo, W. H., Park, S., Boyce, B., Kim, H., Yu, J., Lai, H. Y., Jung, S., Zhou, Y., Kim, J., Cho, S., Huang, Y., Bretl, T. and Rogers, J. A., Jun 2016, In: Advanced Materials. 28, 22, p. 4462-4471 10 p.
    • An improved model-based observer for inertial navigation for quadrotors with low cost IMUs Hanley, D. and Bretl, T., 2016, AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA, (2016 AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference).
    • Automatic grasp selection using a camera in a hand prosthesis Degol, J., Akhtar, A., Manja, B. and Bretl, T., Oct 13 2016, 2016 38th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 431-434 4 p. 7590732. (Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS; vol. 2016-October).
    • Epidermal mechano-acoustic sensing electronics for cardiovascular diagnostics and human-machine interfaces Liu, Y., Norton, J. J. S., Qazi, R., Zou, Z., Ammann, K. R., Liu, H., Yan, L., Tran, P. L., Jang, K. I., Lee, J. W., Zhang, D., Kilian, K., Jung, S. H., Bretl, T., Xiao, J., Slepian, M. J., Huang, Y., Jeong, J. W. and Rogers, J. A., Nov 2016, In: Science Advances. 2, 11, e1601185.
    • Flexible Electronics: An Epidermal Stimulation and Sensing Platform for Sensorimotor Prosthetic Control, Management of Lower Back Exertion, and Electrical Muscle Activation (Adv. Mater. 22/2016) Xu, B., Akhtar, A., Liu, Y., Chen, H., Yeo, W. H., Park, S. I. I., Boyce, B., Kim, H., Yu, J., Lai, H. Y., Jung, S., Zhou, Y., Kim, J., Cho, S., Huang, Y., Bretl, T. and Rogers, J. A., Jun 8 2016, In: Advanced Materials. 28, 22, p. 4563 1 p.
    • Helices, relative equilibria, and optimality on the special Euclidean group Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Dec 27 2016, 2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 185-190 6 p. 7798267. (2016 IEEE 55th Conference on Decision and Control, CDC 2016).
    • Sufficient conditions for a path-connected set of local solutions to an optimal control problem Borum, A. and Bretl, T., 2016, In: SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics. 76, 3, p. 976-999 24 p.

    2015

    • A passive mechanism for relocating payloads with a quadrotor Degol, J., Hanley, D., Aghasadeghi, N. and Bretl, T., Dec 11 2015, IROS Hamburg 2015 - Conference Digest: IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 4337-4342 6 p. 7353992. (IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems; vol. 2015-December).
    • An SSVEP-based brain-computer interface for text spelling with adaptive queries that maximize information gain rates Akce, A., Norton, J. J. S. and Bretl, T., Sep 1 2015, In: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering. 23, 5, p. 857-866 10 p., 6971133.
    • Manipulation planning with contacts for an extensible elastic rod by sampling on the submanifold of static equilibrium configurations Roussel, O., Borum, A., Taix, M. and Bretl, T., Jun 29 2015, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2015. June ed. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 3116-3121 6 p. 7139627. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; vol. 2015-June, no. June).
    • Manipulation planning with contacts for an extensible elastic rod by sampling on the submanifold of static equilibrium configurations Roussel, O., Borum, A., Taix, M. and Bretl, T., Jun 29 2015, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2015. June ed. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 3116-3121 6 p. 7139627. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; vol. 2015-June, no. June).
    • Soft, curved electrode systems capable of integration on the auricle as a persistent brain-computer interface Norton, J. J. S., Lee, D. S., Lee, J. W., Lee, W., Kwon, O., Won, P., Jung, S. Y., Cheng, H., Jeong, J. W., Akce, A., Umunna, S., Na, I., Kwon, Y. H., Wang, X. Q., Liu, Z. J., Paik, U., Huang, Y., Bretl, T., Yeo, W. H. and Rogers, J. A. and 1 others, , Mar 31 2015, In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112, 13, p. 3920-3925 6 p.
    • Tact: Design and performance of an open-source, affordable, myoelectric prosthetic hand Slade, P., Akhtar, A., Nguyen, M. and Bretl, T., Jun 29 2015, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA 2015. June ed. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., p. 6451-6456 6 p. 7140105. (Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation; vol. 2015-June, no. June).
    • The free configuration space of a Kirchhoff elastic rod is path-connected Borum, A. and Bretl, T., Jun 29 2015, In: Proceedings - IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation. 2015-June, June, p. 2958-2964 7 p., 7139604.